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Ancient Mesopotamia

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Courtnay Hotard

on 12 April 2013

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Transcript of Ancient Mesopotamia

The Land Between the Rivers Mesopotamia The "Cradle of Civilization" Climate Mesopotamia (which translates from the Greek as "land between rivers") has always been known as the "cradle of Western Civilization." And for good reason. Not only is Mesopotamia one of the first areas to have numerous civilizations and empires, but is also the place where writing was introduced. Location Mesopotamia is not known as "the land between rivers" for nothing. The area is bordered and shaped by the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, which runs through southeastern Turkey, northeast Syria, southwestern Iran, and much of modern-day Iraq. Semi-arid
Abundant rain to the north
Irrigation needed to the south
Dry summer months
Wet winters It is also because of these two rivers that Mesopotamia takes on another name, the "fertile crescent." Landforms Euphrates River Tigris River Zargos Mountains Persian Gulf Mediterranean Sea Natural Resources The ancient Mesopotamians lacked many natural resources such as timber, building materials, and precious metals. They relied much on the agricultural trade in order to obtain the things stated before. A fishing industry reigns over the southern part of Mesopotamia, giving the culture their own twist. History Timeline 10000 BC The first signs of crude settlements and agriculture where early nomads started to settle. BCE CE 9000 BCE Cultivation of wild grains in the Fertile Crescent 6500 BCE First pottery found in the Near East 6000 BCE The city of Eridu is founded 4300 BCE Uruk period begins in Mesopotamia. First cites being built Major Inventions/Discoveries Mesopotamia contributed much to the evolution of technology and human perception, which is why they are called the "cradle of civilization." Historical Contributions They provided contributions to astronomy, architecture, city building, agriculture, mathematics, medicine, astronomy, philosophy, metal working, and, of course, writing. They were ones to write the oldest living piece of literature, The Epic of Gilgamesh. Inventions/Discoveries Ancient Mesopotamians invented the plow and other farming tools wheels, Cuneiform (writing), irrigation systems, the sailboat, and the sixty minute/hour time system. They also discovered many constellations, cures for diseases, and religion. Gilgamesh Epic Interesting Facts Priests controlled the irrigation system and had more power than the king or queen
The Hanging Gardens were built for a king's wife because she was homesick for the mountains
They didn't believe in the afterlife
Mesopotamians had four main gods and over 3,000 lesser gods.
Priests would eat the livers of chickens to see what the gods wanted for sacrifices
Were said to have created the world's first battery Region Mesopotomia is a region unto itself, being the very first culture hearth and the site of many civilizations and empires. Today, it is in what we call the Middle East. Customs and Traditions Songs Most were written for the gods' enjoyment, but the majority were written to describe important events. Burials Many families were buried together; little children that died were placed in jars in the tombs. Family Scholars believed that in the beginning, men and women were equals, but over time, the mens' status grew and the women's shrunk. Though surprisingly, it is believed that women had rights: could buy property and get a divorce. Festivals They had ceremonies each month, based mostly off of the lunar phase, equinoxes and solstices, and and the agricultural cycles. Religion The Mesopotamians came out with the first recorded religion. They believed that the world was a flat disk, surrounded by a huge, holed space, and then heaven above. They had four main deities: Anu, the god of heaven, Ki, goddess of the earth, Enil, god of air, and Enki, god of water. There was also a trio of gods, the "Triad," that were seen as the most important deities: Anu, Enil, and Enki. These three ruled over all of the other gods and goddesses, and were the first ones to receive a sacrifice. Imports vs Exports Government 2350 BCE First code of laws made by Urukagina, the King of Lagash King Urukagina 2334 BCE Sargon of Akkad reigns over Mesopotamia, creating the world's first empire. 2150 BCE The Epic of Gilgamesh is written on clay tablets And Economy Sumerian temples functioned as banks, developing the first large scale system of loans and credit, but the Babylonians developed the earliest system of commercial banking. The Mesopotamians believed that their kings and queens were descended from the City of Gods, but did not believe them to be gods. The larger the empire grew, the people were divided into provinces, so that it was easier to keep control of. Imports: raw materials such as gold, lips-luzuli, copper, iron, timber, and building materials Exports: jewelry, fish, grains and wild cereals, and weaponry 2100 BCE First ziggurats appear in Ur, Erida, Uruk, and Nippur BCE 2083 BCE The Dark Ages for Mesopotamia begin 1900 BCE Trade between Mesopotamia and other regions flourishes 1787 BCE Hammurabi of Babylon conquers Uruk and Isin 1760 BCE The code of Hammurabi is written, one of the earliest codes of law World of Change Mesopotamian Marshes By: H. Partow This article talks about the marshes that take up residence in Mesopotamia, and the devastation they have faced within the past decade. Saddam Hussein, a former Iraqi leader, did much damage to the marshes when he drained large areas as punishment for the local tribes that rebelled. Since then, scientists have stated that though the vegetation seems to be growing once again, and the floods coming still, the future of the marshes has yet to be determined. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/irag.php Marshes in 2000 Marshes in 2010 1550 BCE The kingdom of Mittani is founded 1080 BCE Aramaeans invade Mesopotamia 612 BCE The downfall of the Assyrian empire 539 BCE Fall of Babylon, conquered by Cyrus of Persia. Return of the Jews 115 CE Rome occupies Mesopotamia 637 CE Muslim conquest of Mesopotamia Location The location of the article is in Mesopotamia, which is modern day Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and Syria. Place Human Characteristics: the dams and reservoirs that drain the marshes and keep it from flooding
Physical Characteristics: the marshes and Tigris and Euphrates rivers that feed into the marsh, and also the natural vegetation Region This is a formal region because of the natural barriers that the Tigris and Euphrates rivers form around Mesopotamia. Movement The theme of movement in this passage is found when the water flows into and out of the marshes each year, sometimes natural, sometimes industrial. Human-Environmental Interaction The people are modifying the marshes by keeping them from flooding by building canals and dams to block the flow of water.
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