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AXIAL SKELETON OF MAMMALS

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by

Kanwal Nisar

on 10 April 2015

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Transcript of AXIAL SKELETON OF MAMMALS

SKULL
Consist of 22 bones and divided into 2 categories :
Cranial bones
Facial bones
AXIAL SKELETON OF MAMMALS
Composed of 80 bones and consist of 8 parts
skull bones, the ossicles of the middle ear, the hyoid bone, the rib cage, sternum or breast bone and the vertebral column.
 Cranial Bones
Consists of 8 bones which encloses the brain

Frontal bone
Parietal bone
Temporal bone
Occipital bone
Sphenoid bone
Ethemoid bone
Facial Bones
14 facial bones form the face, provide cavities for the sense organs (eyes, mouth, and nose).
Nasal bone
Lacrimal bone
Inferior nasal conchae
Mandibles
OSSICLES OF MIDDLE EAR
consist of 6 bones: two malleus bones, two incus bones, and two stapes.

HYOID BONE
The hyoid bone lies below the mandible in the front of the neck.

THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN
comprised of 26 bones: the 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx bones
. The adult vertebrae are further divided into the 7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, and 5 lumbar vertebrae.
Typical vertebrae
e


The Cervical Vertebrae
7 in number
Smallest from all
Support skull and allow movement
First 2 are atlas and axis d/f from all other
Thoracic vertebrae
12 in number
centrum large
neural spine long
form anchorage by articulating facets
5 in number
largest
strongest
hold body weight and allow movement
Lumber Vertebrae
Sacrum
Triangular
5 fused vertebrae
present on hip bone
4 fused vertebrae
d/f from typical vertebrae
Ribs
12 in number
flate, narrow
crescent shape
have a head and a shaft
7 pairs are true ribs
8,9,10th are vertebrochondral
last 2 are floating ribs
Sternum
Presenter:
Kanwal Nisar

Functions
protection to brain and spinal chord, heart, lungs.
Attachment site for appendicular skelleton
cavities for sense organs
helps in respiration
Full transcript