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School Reform Timeline

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Whitney Hartzell

on 5 November 2012

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Transcript of School Reform Timeline

Education has a long historical and philosophical history. Indeed teaching and learning has been intricate to our evolution as human beings. Everything teaches. John Medina Quote.

We can probably agree that education in some form has always been important to societies. It is a way to socialize children into the society they live, to pass on skills, important knowledge that will help them survive and thrive. Before the 19th century many educational settings were either trade specific, informal and apprenticeship based, religious, or were specific to college of which most were private, and often only available to wealthy students. Organized compulsory schooling did not come about until the early 1900s. With organized schooling came the many ideas that would shape change or reform the schooling process. The last 120 years in the United States have been filled (sometimes in excess) with what we now call educational school reform.

This working timeline explores the direct and contextual historical events, philosophies and legislation that has influenced educational reform. The time line is roughly organized around the three main reform movements in the United States:
Progressive reform
Equity reform
Excellence reform

There are many points along the timeline that can be explored, navigate by moving through the timeline at your pace. This is a working time line in that there are events I have most certainly overlooked, or events that have yet to occur. As my own education progresses I imagine this time this time line will also. Excellence Reform Movement 1837- Massachusetts State Board of Education is formed, Horace Mann becomes the secretary. A proponent of public (or "free") schools, Mann works for increased funding of public schools and better training for teachers. 1852 - Massachusetts enacts the first mandatory attendance law. In 1885, 16 states have compulsory-attendance laws, but enforcement is as scarce as resistance is strong. Following Massachusetts lead all states have compulsory-attendance laws by 1918. 1854 -The Boston Public Library opens to the public. It is the first major tax-supported free library in the U.S. 1857 - The National Teachers Association ( the National Education Association) is founded by forty-three educators in Philadelphia. 1859 - Charles Darwin's The Origin of Species is published on November 24, his theory of species evolution was highly influential and is even more so today. The first publishing began a controversy that around teaching the theory of evolution in public schools which lingers to this day. 1868 -The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified and becomes law. Guaranteeing privileges of citizenship including due process and equal protection under the law and the right to vote for freed male slaves. It becomes the basis for numerous important court cases in education such as rulings in Brown v. Board of Education (1957) and Pyler v. Doe (1982). 1874 - The Michigan State Supreme Court rules that Kalamazoo may levy taxes to support a public high school, setting an important precedent for similar rulings in other states. 1867 - The Department of Education is created in order to help states establish effective school systems.
1879 - The first Indian boarding school opens in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. It becomes the model for a total of 26 similar schools, all with the goal of assimilating Indian children into mainstream culture. The Carlisle Indian Industrial School closes in 1918. 1916 - John Dewey's Democracy and Education. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education is published. Dewey's views help advance the ideas of the "progressive education movement." An With its roots in the progressive political movement, progressive education seeks to make schools more effective agents of democracy. 1917 - As the U.S. enters W.W.I the army has no means of screening the intellectual ability of its recruits. Robert Yerkes, the President of the American Psychological Association at the time and an army officer, becomes Chairman of the Committee on Psychological Examination of Recruits. The committee, which included Louis Terman, had the task of developing a group intelligence test. They design the Army Alpha and Beta tests. These tests lay the groundwork for future standardized tests. 1917 - The Smith-Hughes Act passes, providing federal funding for agricultural and vocational education. It is repealed in 1997. 1920 - The 19th Amendment is ratified, giving women the right to vote. 1926 - The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) is first administered. It is based on the Army Alpha test. 1925 - Tennessee vs. John Scopes ("the Monkey Trial") captures national attention as John Scopes, a high school biology teacher, is charged with the heinous crime of teaching evolution. The trial ends in Scopes' conviction. The evolution versus creationism controversy persists to this day. 1929 - The Great Depression begins with the stock market crash in October. The U.S. economy is devastated. Public education funding suffers greatly, resulting in school closings, teacher layoffs, and lower salaries. 1931 - Alvarez vs. the Board of Trustees of the Lemon Grove (California) School District becomes the first successful school desegregation court case in the United States, as the local court forbids the school district from placing Mexican-American children in a separate "Americanization" school. 1932 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected president and begins bold efforts to spur economic recovery with his New Deal. 1935 - Congress authorizes the Works Progress Administration. Its purpose is to put the unemployed to work on public projects, including the construction of hundreds of school buildings, bridges, dams etc. The Federal Artists Project was a division that employed artists to capture and inspire the american population. 1939 - The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (first called the Wechsler- Bellevue Intelligence Scale) is developed by David Wechsler. It introduces the concept of the "deviation IQ," which calculates IQ scores based on how far subjects' scores differ (or deviate) from the average score of others who are the same age. Wechsler intelligence tests, particularly the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, are still widely used in U.S. schools to help identify students needing special education. 1941 - The U.S. enters World War II after the Japanese attack Pearl Harbor on December 7. During the next four years, much of the country's resources go to the war effort. Education is put on the back burner as many young men quit school to enlist; schools are faced with personnel problems as teachers and other employees enlist, are drafted, or leave to work in defense plants; school construction is put on hold. 1944 - The G.I. Bill officially known as the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, is signed by FDR on June 22. Nearly 7.8 million World War II veterans take advantage of the GI Bill during the seven years benefits are offered. More than two-million attend colleges or universities, nearly doubling the college population. About 238,000 become teachers. 1950 - Public Law 81-740 grants a federal charter to the FFA and recognizes it as an integral part of the program of vocational agriculture. The law is revised in 1998 and becomes Public Law 105-225. 1953 - Burrhus Frederic Skinner's, Science and Human Behavior, is published. His form of behaviorism (operant conditioning), which emphasizes changes in behavior due to reinforcement, becomes widely accepted and influences many aspects of American education 1954 - May 17th, the U.S. Supreme Court announces its decision in the case of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, ruling that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal," thus overturning its previous ruling in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson. It is a historic first step in the long and unfinished journey toward equality in U.S. education. 1957 - Federal troops enforce integration in Little Rock, Arkansas as the Little Rock 9 enroll at Central High School. 1955 - Rosa Parks, a Montgomery, Alabama seamstress, refuses to give up her seat on the bus to a white passenger and is subsequently arrested and fined. This starts the Montgomery bus boycott, and builds strength for the Civil Rights Movement. A year later, in the case of Browder v. Gale, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that segregated seating on buses unconstitutional. 1958 - At least partially because of Sputnik, science and science education become important concerns in the U.S., resulting in the passage of the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) which authorizes increased funding for scientific research as well as science, mathematics, and foreign language education. 1959 - The ACT Test is first administered. 1963 - In response to the large number of Cuban immigrant children arriving in Miami after the Cuban Revolution, Coral Way Elementary School starts the "nation's first bilingual public school in the modern era." 1964 - The Civil Rights Act becomes law. It prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion or national origin. 1904: National Child Labor Committee formed. 1965 - The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is passed on April 9. Part of Lyndon Johnson's "War on Poverty," it provides federal funds to help low-income students, which results in the initiation of educational programs such as Title I and bilingual education. 1965 - Project Head Start, a preschool education program for children from low-income families, begins as an eight-week summer program. Part of the "War on Poverty," the program continues to this day. 1966 - The Equality of Educational Opportunity Study, often called the Coleman Report because of its primary author James S. Coleman, is conducted in response to provisions of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. It concludes that African American children benefit from attending integrated schools, this sets the stage for school "busing" to achieve desegregation.
1968 - The Bilingual Education Act, also know as Title VII, becomes law. (In 2002 after years of controversy, the law is repealed and replaced by the No Child Left Behind Act.) 1970 - In his controversial book, Deschooling Society, Ivan Illich sharply criticizes traditional schools and calls for the end of compulsory school attendance. 1970 - Jean Piaget's book, The Science of Education, is published. His Learning Cycle model helps to popularize discovery-based teaching approaches, particularly in the sciences. 1970 - The case of Diana v. California State Board results in new laws requiring that children referred for possible special education placement be tested in their primary language. 1971 - In the case of Pennsylvania Association for Retarded Children (PARC) v. Pennsylvania, the federal court rules that students with mental retardation are entitled to a free public education. 1972 - The Indian Education Act becomes law. 1972 - Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 becomes law. Though many people associate this law only with girl's and women's participation in sports, Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in all aspects of education. 1973 - The Rehabilitation Act becomes law. Section 504 of this act guarantees civil rights for people with disabilities in the context of federally funded institutions and requires accommodations in schools including participation in programs and activities as well as access to buildings. Currently, "504 Plans" are used to provide accommodations for students with disabilities who do not qualify for special education or an IEP. 1974 - In the Case of Lau v. Nichols, the U.S. Supreme Court rules that the failure of the San Francisco School District to provide English language instruction to Chinese-American students with limited English proficiency (LEP) is a violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Though the case does not require a specific approach to teaching LEP students, it does require school districts to provide equal opportunities for all students, including those who do not speak English. 1974 - The Equal Educational Opportunities Act is passed. It prohibits discrimination and requires schools to take action to overcome barriers which prevent equal protection. The legislation has been particularly important in protecting the rights of students with limited English proficiency..

1974 - Federal Judge Arthur Garrity orders busing of African American students to predominantly white schools in order to achieve racial integration of public schools in Boston, MA. White parents protest, particularly in South Boston. 1975 - The Education of All Handicapped Children Act (PL 94-142) becomes federal law. It requires that a free, appropriate public education, suited to the student's individual needs, and offered in the least restrictive setting be provided for all "handicapped" children. States are given until 1978 (later extended to 1981) to fully implement the law. 1977 - Apple Computer, now Apple Inc., introduces the Apple II, one of the first successful personal computers. It and its offspring, the Apple IIe, become popular in schools as students begin to learn with computer games such as Oregon Trail and Odell Lake. 1982 - In the case of Board of Education v. Pico, the U.S. Supreme court rules that books cannot be removed from a school library because school administrators deemed their content to be offensive. 1990 - Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), reauthorizes Public Law 94-142. Changes terminology from handicap to disability. Mandates transition services, adds autism and traumatic brain injury to the eligibility list. 1991 - Minnesota passes the first "charter school" law. 1993 - The Massachusetts Education Reform Act requires a common curriculum and statewide tests (Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System). As has often been the case, other states follow Massachusetts' lead and implement similar, high-stakes testing programs. 1994 - The Improving America's Schools Act (IASA) is signed into law by President Bill Clinton on January 25th. It. reauthorizes the ESEA of 1965 and includes reforms for Title I; increased funding for bilingual and immigrant education; and provisions for public charter schools, drop-out prevention, and educational technology. 1996 - James Banks' book, Multicultural Education: Transformative Knowledge and Action, makes an important contribution to the growing body of scholarship regarding multiculturalism in education.

1996 - The Oakland, California School District sparks controversy as it proposes that Ebonics be recognized as the native language of African American children. 2001 - The controversial No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is approved by Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. The law, which reauthorizes the ESEA of 1965 and replaces the Bilingual Education Act of 1968, mandates high-stakes student testing, holds schools accountable for student achievement levels, and provides penalties for schools that do not make adequate yearly progress toward meeting the goals of NCLB. 2004 - H.R. 1350, The Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act (IDEA 2004), reauthorizes and modifies IDEA. Changes, which take effect on July 1, 2005, include modifications in the IEP process and procedural safeguards, increased authority for school personnel in special education placement decisions, and alignment of IDEA with the No Child Left Behind Act. The 2004 reauthorization also requires school districts to use the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach as a means for the early identification of students at risk for specific learning disabilities. RTI provides a three-tiered model for screening, monitoring, and providing increasing degrees of intervention using “research-based instruction" with the overall goal of reducing the need for special education services
2007 - In the cases of Parents involved in Community Schools v. Seattle School District No 1 and Meredith v. Jefferson County Board of Education, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled 5-4 that race cannot be a factor in assigning students to high schools, thus rejecting integration plans in Seattle and Louisville, and possibly affecting similar plans in school districts around the nation. 2009 - The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009 provides more than 90-billion dollars for education, nearly half of which goes to local school districts to prevent layoffs and for school modernization and repair. It includes the Race to the Top initiative, a 4.35-billion-dollar program designed to induce reform in K-12 education. 2009 - The Common Core State Standards Initiative, "a state-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers," is launched. It is expected that many, perhaps most, states will adopt them. 2011 - In spite of massive protests and Democratic legislators leaving the state to delay the vote, the Wisconsin legislature passes a bill removing most collective-bargaining rights from public employees, including teachers. Governor Scott Walker signs the bill into law on March 11. After legal challenges are exhausted, it is finally implemented in June. 1827 Education laws in Massachusetts require
Towns with more than 500 families to provide public English high schools. Until this time classical schools were mainly college prep and private. http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/a_f/erdrich/boarding/gallery/praying.jpg 2006, Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technologies Act Reauthorized previous act of 1990, also strengthened connection between primary and secondary education. 1990, Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technologies Act. Mandated federal funding and schools (at all levels) toward preparing student for a technologically oriented future in the workplace. 1994, Educate America Act (Goals 2000) Required individual states to submit applications describing the how they will create a school improvement program, and make subgrants to local schools. Set several goals for school nationwide to be reached by the year 2000. Peaking in the 1960's with the activity of the civil rights movement. The equity reform could be said to have movement begun when the U.S. Supreme court ruled in favor of Brown in Brown vs. The Board of Education. While the equity movement began by fighting racial inequality through desegregating schools. The movement included greater access to education equality for bilingual students, Native American educational rights and advancements in special education. There is still work to be done in creating true equality in schools, but much of the legislation that took place during the Equity Reform Movement influence schools today. The Excellence reform movement was spurred by a 1983 report published by the National Commission on Excellence in Education, "A Nation at Risk". This report called for sweeping reforms in public education and teacher training. Including the call to incorporate computer training into high school curriculum. The excellence movement has advocated for higher college admissions and a reliance on national standardized tests. Some would say that this movement continues to this day. 1983 - The report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education, A Nation at Risk, calls for sweeping reforms in public education and teacher training. Among their recommendations is a forward-looking call for expanding high school requirements to include the study of computer science. 1972 Congress launches an investigation after PARC & Mills case, into the status of children with disabilities and found that millions of were not receiving an appropriate education. 1850 1860 1820 1906 Upton Sinclair publishes The Jungle exposing industrial meat companies and labor practices. 1870 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1970 1980 1990 Equity Reform Movement Progressive Education Movement The Progressive Era was precursor of the education reform movement that shares the same name, and the Progressive Education Movement has strong roots in the Progressive Era, and thus a brief context will be useful. The Progressive Era was a time in which the country was recovering from many rapid social changes brought about by the industrial revolution of 1750-1850. The industrial revolution had an effect on nearly every aspect of life. People alive today know how advancing technologies (i.e. computers/cell phones) have a dramatic affect on every day life. The years that characterize the progressive movement in education are approximately the 1890's-1920's, the height of the Progressive Education Movement corresponds with what Landes (2003) calls the second industrial revolution.

While the first industrial revolution was centered on iron, steam technologies and textile production, the second industrial revolution revolved around steel, railroads, electricity, and chemicals.The second revolution has also been called a technological revolution, particular advances in electricity, the internal combustion engine, new materials and substances, including alloys and chemicals, and communication technologies such as the telegraph and radio were all a part of this second industrial revolution.

The Progressive school reform movement took place in the late 19th century through the mid 20th century. Locke first speculated, “truth and knowledge… are out of observation and experience rather than manipulation of accepted or given ideas “ (Locke as cited in Hayes, 2007, p. 2). He further discussed the need for children to have concrete experiences in order to learn. John Dewey played a larger part in bringing these ideas of schooling into the american curriculum.

The term progressive implies that it is new or different from the old traditions of schooling. Previous to this time schooling was college specific and nearly exclusively available to the wealthy. Progressive education has been used to describe ideas and practices that aim to make schools more effective agencies of a democratic society. John Dewey is considered one of the leading educational philosophers of this movement. He was a proponent of life based, child based, experiential education. 2000 1946 - Recognizing "the need for a permanent legislative basis for a school lunch program," the 79th Congress approves the National School Lunch Act. 1946 - In the landmark court case of Mendez vs. Westminster and the California Board of Education, the U. S. District Court in Los Angeles rules that educating children of Mexican descent in separate facilities is unconstitutional, thus prohibiting segregation in California schools. This case sets an important precedent for Brown vs. Board of Education. 1960 1950 1957- USSR launches the first artificial satellite in history. 1982 Supreme Court struck down a state statute denying funding for education to illegal immigrant children, as well as a municipal school district's attempt to charge illegal immigrants an annual $1,000 tuition fee for each illegal immigrant student to compensate for the lost state funding. 2012-July, 26 states are now relieved from requirements of NCLB. Additional waivers are pending in 10 states and the District of Columbia. Significantly decreasing the effect of. 2012- February. The U.S. Department of Education invites each State educational agency (SEA) to request flexibility regarding specific requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, on behalf of itself, its local educational agencies, and schools, in order to better focus on improving student learning and increasing the quality of instruction. To replace NCLB, states will provide rigorous and comprehensive State-developed plans designed to improve educational outcomes for all students, close achievement gaps, increase equity, and improve the quality of instruction. 2010 Introduction Progressive Education Reform Equity Education Reform Excellence Reform 1961- Publication of, The Development of Performance in Autistic Children in an Automatically Controlled Environment, by Ferster & DeMyer. Gives insight into instructional techniques that will come to greatly aid future of special education instruction. 1997 P.L. 94-142 reauthorizes IDEA, introducing regulations regarding functional behavior assessement, behavior support plans. Schools are encourages to use positive behavioral support.
Timeline References:

Berube, M. R. (1994). American school reform: Progressive, equity, and excellence movements, 1883-1993. Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Berube, M. R., & Berube, C. T. (2007). The end of school reform. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Butts, R. F., & Cremin, L. A. (1953). A history of education in American culture. New York: Holt.

Gatto, J. T. (2001). The underground history of American education: A schoolteacher's intimate investigation into the problem of modern schooling. New York: Oxford Village Press.

Gibboney, R. A., & Berube, M. R. (April 01, 1996). Review of American School Reform: Progressive, Equity, and Excellence Movements, 1883-1993. History of Education Quarterly, 36, 1, 69-70.

Guthrie, J. W. (2003). Encyclopedia of education. New York: Macmillan Reference USA.

Landes, D. S. (2003). The unbound Prometheus: Technological change and industrial development in Western Europe from 1750 to the present. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Loewen, J. W. (2007). Lies my teacher told me: Everything your American history textbook got wrong. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Leslie, Mitchell. (2000). The Vexing Legacy of Lewis Terman Stanford Magazine July/August 2000. Retrieved from http://alumni.stanford.edu/get/page/magazine/article/?article_id=40678

Obiakor F. E., Bakken, J. P., & Rotatori, A. F. (2010). Current issues and trends in special education: Identification, assessment and instruction. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Obiakor, F. E., Bakken, J. P., & Rotatori, A. F. (2011). History of special education. Bingley, UK: Emerald.

Ravitch, D., & Vinovskis, M. (1995). Learning from the past: What history teaches us about school reform. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Rich, Motoko. (2012). No Child Left Behind Whittled Down Under Obama, NY Times, july 26, 2012. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/07/06/education/no-child-left-behind-whittled-down-under-obama.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0

Robinson, D. W. (March 11, 2010). American Educational History: School, Society, and the Common Good, by William H. Jeynes. Religion & Education, 37, 1, 89-90.

Tyack, D. B., & Cuban, L. (1995). Tinkering toward utopia: A century of public school reform. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

U.S. Department of Education: https://www.ed.gov/esea/flexibilityUrban, W. J., & Wagoner, J. L. (2009). American education: A history. New York, NY: Routledge.

Zinn, H. (2003). A people's history of the United States: 1492-present. New York: HarperCollins. Working Timeline: School Reform
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