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lindsay galway

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of proposal

Philosophical underpinnings
and approach Rationale Frameworks Overarching goals,research questions and objectives Why this and why now? Climate change is “the biggest global health threat of the 21st century.”
The Lancet, 2010

“Much of the impact of climate change will be felt through changing patterns of water availability, with shrinking glaciers and changing patterns of precipitation increasing the likelihood of drought and flood.  Water is in the eye of the climate management storm”.
IPCC, 2007

“Climate change call into question the ways in which we develop and use knowledge“.
Bhaskar , 2012 Linking climate change, water, and population health:
An interdisciplinary exploration with implications for impacts, adaptation, and research ~Generally, involves proposing hypotheses and generating studies to test them, generating new knowledge
~ I draw on this methodology for phase 1 research
~In my case, I will employ epidemiological study design to test the hypotheses that a) the monthly occurrence of GI illness in BC will illustrate seasonality b)the monthly occurrence of GI illness will be associated with weather and hydrological variables. PhD Comprehensive exams
& Proposal Defense
January 17th Common themes here... ~Integration
~Reflection Three Domains of knowledge
and learning Contextualized DPSEEA
framework Nested levels of climate change
adaptation framing Rolfe's Framework for
reflective practice Choice of Methodologies Discourse Analysis The Scientific Method Specific research questions and objectives: Methods Paper 2:Effects of weather and hydrological factors on GI illness: A time-series analysis Paper 1:A seasonal analysis of GI illness by hydro-climatic regime, drinking water source, and pathogen type Research Process and timeline Proposed timeline Research Process Paper 3:Climate change adaptation in the public health and water management literature: Identifying framing similarities and differences using a qualitative content analysis General outline for today
-Update on NextGenu course (5 min)
Question/answer period re: comp questions (~20 min +10 min committee discussion)
-Proposal presentation (~25min + 5 min committee discussion)
-Discussion/questions (~20 min)
-Wrap-up (~5 min) Overarching goals: ~ To contribute to our understanding of the links among climate change, water, and population health
~To inform discussions about how we can respond to water-related climate change impacts
~To learn about and reflect upon the process of interdisciplinary research at the climate change-water-population health nexus Guiding research question: What are the links among climate change, water , and population health? Phase 1) What are the possible impacts of climate change on waterborne GI illness? ( this phase will focus on BC)
Objective 1: To describe the seasonality of waterborne GI illness in BC in general and across hydro-climatic regimes, drinking water sources, and pathogen groups.
Objective 2: To assess the relationships between weather and hydrological variables and the occurrence of waterborne GI illness in two BC communities located in different hydro-climatic regimes.
Phase 2) What are the links and divergences in the framing of climate change adaptation across the applied fields of water management and public health?
Objective 3: To characterize links and divergences in the framing of climate change adaptation in the water management and public health literature.
Objective 4: To critically reflect on the research process and lessons learned with a focus on implications for interdisciplinary research at the nexus of climate change, water, and population health. Why Me? Pragmatism Interdisciplinary Ecohealth Methodological pluralism Offers a middle ground Accepts the role of reflection Explicit integration of concepts, methodologies, knowledge and tools resulting in mutual enrichment An emerging field of research and practice interested in understanding how changes in environment and ecosystems affect human health and well-being Objective: To describe the seasonality of waterborne GI illness in BC in general and across hydro-climatic regimes, drinking water sources, and pathogen groups.
Hypothesis: The monthly occurrence of GI illness in BC will illustrate seasonality Study setting: Eight study communities representing different hydro-climatic regimes and drinking water sources Data: Five reportable GI illnesses from 1999-2010 Methods of analysis: Time-series plots: Plot series of cases over time ( 132 months) to visualize seasonal patterns. Monthly plots: Calculate and plot total monthly incidence over the 11-year study period were (Also, use a negative binomial regression to test the statistical significance of monthly variation) Spectral analysis: Used to identify and assess the dominant cyclical patterns, or periodicities in time-series. Periodograms are constructed using spectral decomposition of monthly incidence rates where the spectral density (defined as the maximum squared amplitude of the cosine regression model with a given frequency) is plotted against the period. The statistical significance of seasonal patterns was tested using two formal tests: the Fisher Kappa (FK) Test and the Bartlett Kolmogorov Smirnov (BKS). The FK tests the hypothesis that the series is white noise against the alternative hypothesis that the series contains a periodic component of unspecified frequency. The BKS tests the null hypothesis that the series is white noise, or that there is no periodicity. Study setting: Two large communities in BC; one in snow-dominated hydro-climatic regime and the other in rain-dominated Data: Three reportable GI illnesses (campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis) from 1999-2010. Weather and hydrological variables gathered from various sources. Objective: To assess the relationships between weather and hydrological variables and the occurrence of waterborne GI illness in two BC communities located in different hydro-climatic regimes. Methods of analysis: Poisson time-series analysis using generalized additive models (GAM) Sampling: The sample of texts to be analyzed will be comprised of peer-reviewed papers from academic and practitioner journals from 2008 up to 2012. The sampling strategy will generate a purposive sample constructed to serve a specific purpose rather than a representative sample Qualitative inductive content analysis: 1) Preparation: Data analysis begins by ‘obtaining a sense of the whole’ by reading all of the data to achieve immersion. Next, a datasheet will be generated containing all statements related to climate change adaptation from the sample. 2)Organizing : The organizing phase will involve organizing the data using inductive category development to identify important parameters of climate change adaptation framing. An inductive approach to category development will be used rather than the deductive approach because existing theory to develop a priori coding is limited. Inductive category development involves open coding, creating categories, and abstraction. The data will be re-read to derive categories representing dimensions of climate change adaptation framing. Related categories will then be collapsed into broader categories. Parameters might include for example ‘who adapts’ or ‘how adaptation is referred to (i.e. problem or opportunity)’ 3)Interpretation phase :
Characterize similarities and differences in the identified emergent parameters of climate change adaptation within the public health and the water management literature.
Comments on my progress The Good Four main factors motivate my work in this area:
1) Dynamic and challenging subject matter requiring integrative thinking
2) I am motivated by issues at the intersection of global environmental change, resource management, and human well-being
3) A natural progression in my training
4) Relevant to the general principles of my work :
~To do work that is relevance for research-policy-practice
~To do work that is grounded in respect
~To stretch thinking and the norm
~Practice emergence by engaging in the parts
~To exist in spaces between disciplines Centralizes the research question Methodology ≠ Methods
~Methodology = How the inquirer goes about generating knowledge (process and procedures)
~Methods= tools employed to collect and analyze data ~One of a range of methodologies available to find meaning from text.
~Somewhat flexible and numerous specific tools exist to analyze text in various forms
~Interested in 'language-in-use'
~Will use to understand how the concept of climate change adaptation is conceptualized and framed ~ Have learned A LOT ( too much....?)
~ Have gained greater insight into the parts of this work that really intrigue me
~ Have been able to act as a 'mentor' of sorts to newer PhD students
~ Have been able to publish a few articles (realize the effort it takes to publish! The bad and the ugly ~ It is a challenge to stay motivated along the way
~ Have had limited support due to small cohort
~ Always find the breadth/depth of knowledge a challenge
~Not always clear about expectations ... how much is not enough/too much
~Some difficulties because PhD path in FHS in not well laid out ( because it is a new program)
~The data for phase 1 has limited options/analyses
~ Interdisciplinarity a challenge in the academic setting
~A PHD is VERY challenging... What is time series analysis?
Common ecological study design used in environmental epidemiology and climate change and health research. Used to assess the impacts of time-varying exposures on health endpoints. What is a GAM?
Generalized additive model, an extension of the generalized linear model. GAMs are more flexible and enable addition a smoothing term to control for seasonality and trend.
Looks like this:
Log (E (cases))= Intercept +S(time)+ B1(explanatory variable ) +B2(explanatory variable) ... IRR = tells us the change in expected in the outcome per a 1 unit change in an explanatory variable in question.

For example: On IRR of 1.013 indicates that 1 unit increase in relative humidity increases risk of illness by 1.017 times (or increase in 1.7%) , controlling for the effects of all other variables From: Environmental determinants of campylobacteriosis risk in Philadelphia from 1994 to 2007. Ecohealth (2009) General things to talk about:
1) Comments and thoughts about my progress so far
2) I would love to hear more clear expectations from you all
3)General thoughts about proposal and three papers
- Am I doing enough /not enough/ missing anything?
-Should phase 3 (reflection) also be a research question?
4) I plan to have analyses completed for paper 2 this semester... will be wanting to go over this with each of you
4) What I see/am working towards in my future in general Question and Discussion time Three challenges:
1) Enhance our understanding of the possible impacts of climate change
2) Consider how to respond
3) Critically reflect on the nature and role of knowledge
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