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Copy of A2 PE - Psychology: Group Dynamics

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Chris Esberger

on 26 January 2015

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Transcript of Copy of A2 PE - Psychology: Group Dynamics

Carron and Davies identified the existence of mutual interdependence and they also suggested that the following criteria must apply before sports teams, exercise clubs and classes of PE students can be considered 'teams' or 'groups'.
What are group dynamics?
Structured patterns of communication
Collective identity
A common goal
Group unity
Shared purpose
Properties of groups
In which group members argue and compete with each other and different types of leader emerge. The coach must drive them through this stage.
A2 PE - Psychology - Group Dynamics
Tuckman's model of group development
In which group members get to know each other. During this stage the coach tells the group what to do.
In which group members agree how to work together, and rules are developed with acceptable behavior defined. During this stage, leaders emerge and take responsibility and the coach becomes a consultant.
In which the group works as a unit, group members are independent and the more skilful or experienced members make decisions independently.
Later, Tuckman added a fifth stage - mourning. This occurs when the team breaks up because the task has been completed.
Steiner's Model
Actual group performance =
potential productivity - losses due to faulty processes
Elements of Steiner's Model
Actual productivity is the result of group achievement. E.g. the actual score of the game.

Potential productivity is the groups best possible performance given the resources and task demands. E.g. a tall basketball team should beat a smaller set of players.

Faulty processes are things that go pear shaped. It relates to the factors that can go wrong in team performance, which will impede or even prevent group cohesion and detract from the collective potential of the team.
Social Loafing
Occurs when an individual suffers motivational losses within a group. The individual feels that a reduction in effort would not be noticed.
Causes of Social Loafing
A belief that your effort won't change the result
Others aren't trying so why should you
Others will cover for your lack of effort
Lack of reinforcement
Low confidence
Perceived low ability
Low arousal/motivation
Poor leadership
Negative attitudes
Minimalising Social Loafing
If players...
Believe that their contribution to the team is valuable
Understand and accept that their own particular responsibilities to the team
Allow individuals to experience different roles within the team structure
Foster a team spirit and heighten the importance of units within teams. E.g. defensive unit
Individuals who are loafing need to be made aware of it
Emphasis on group goals
Task cohesion - the degree to which group members are united in achieving the common goal, such as winning the game.
Social cohesion - the degree to which group members like each other and get on, a mutual trust.
Factors affecting cohesion
Situational factors
Elements of the specific situation and the environment

Individual factors
Characteristics of team members

Leadership factors
Style of leadership preferred by the group

Team factors
Common goals, communication, shared success
The behaviour within groups, especially sports teams can be influenced by group dynamics.

Using psychological theories and practical example, explain why some teams seem to be more cohesive than others of the same ability.

Explain the negative group influences that can cause someone to not lead a healthy, active and balanced lifestyle. [20 marks]
Coordination Losses
'The Ringlemann Effect
Operational effectiveness of a group cannot be sustained for the duration of a match
Any breakdown in teamwork is regarded as a co-ordination loss.
More likely to occur as team numbers increase
Full transcript