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cell intro

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elizabeth jones

on 9 April 2012

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Transcript of cell intro

What do all living things have in common? How do the following organisms
take in nutrients?
give off waste?
respond to stimuli?

All organisms are made up of cells Cells are made up of organelles
="tiny" organs Nucleus:
brain of the cell
contains the DNA Cell Wall:
is only in plants and bacteria,
provides support and structure Cell membrane:
controls what goes in and out of the cell
fluid mosaic of phospholipids bilayers and protein gates http://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlifeandgenetics/ http://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlifeandgenetics/activetransport/preview.weml http://www.brainpop.com/science/cellularlifeandgenetics/cells/preview.weml Cytoplasm:
gell like liquid that the organelles are in Endoplasmic Reticulum:
rough ER (has ribosomes on it)
the passageways that materials are trasnported around the cell on Golgi Body:
packages materials that are used by the cell Vacuole

*large in the plant cell where it provides support
*stores water and food Vesicle
*stores water food and waste
*lysosome are specific name for waste storing vesicles ribosomes
make proteins Mitochondria
where respiration occurs producing energy in the cell in the form of ATP Chloroplasts
*only in plants
*where photosynthesis occurs Mitosis Meiosis cell division= producing two exact copies *cell division in gametes (eggs, sperm, pollen, ovum)
*produce four cells with half the DNA. Microbiology:
*what does micro mean?
*ology The study of little things like:
classified by shape: Spherical
like Streptococcus and Staphlyococcus Rod-shaped
like E.coli Spiral shaped
like spirillum How big are protists, bacteria and viruses? *protists are tiny
*bacteria are really really tiny
*viruses are WAY more tiny than either one! How do cells get nutrient in and waste out? Diffusion
*the movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Osmosis
*the diffusion of WATER across a membrane Passive Transport
*doesn't need energy=diffusion Active Transport
*movement of molecules from low to high concentration
*doesn't happen on its own
*require energy (ATP) http://www.williamsclass.com/SeventhScienceWork/ImagesCellBricks/Diffusion.gif http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/osmosis3.gif *movement of molecules across the membrane that are too big to fit through the protein gates.
*endocytosis-in Viruses:
*super duper small
*not made of cell so not even considered living
*simply a protein capsule containing DNA
*cannot reproduce on their own roles of bacteria
1.cause infections, killed with antibiotics
2. decomposers-bioremediation
3.in our food
*good- cheese
*bad- spoiled milk, cook meat, e.coli contamination
4. bioengineering
*insulin producing bacteria reproduce with the lytic cycle cause desease: combat with vaccines (dead or weakened versions of the virus so your body makes antibodies to it) http://www.cellsalive.com/howbig.htm Protists are the largest group in microbiology...and the most complex...and diverse Protists:
single celled
have organelles
found everywhere, common in water
have specialized structures for moving, which is what they are classified by Paramecium:
beat cilia- little hairs all over their bodies Euglena
flagella- tail Ameoba
oozing pseudopods (fake feet), also known as cytoplasmic ooze Volvox:
very important! because they are a colony of single celled protists
they are the evolutionary connection between single celled and multicellular organisms The END Respiration:
occurs in the mitochondria
the chemical reaction between sugar and oxygen--> water and carbon dioxide and energy in the form of ATP Photosynthesis
occurs in the chloroplasts
CO2 + H2O +sunlight--> O2 + C6H12O2
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