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Attachment and career identity: Is romantic attachment more

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Lucia Kvitkovicova

on 20 March 2017

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Transcript of Attachment and career identity: Is romantic attachment more

Lucia Kvitkovičová, Tomotaka Umemura, & Petr Macek
ATTACHMENT RELATIONSHIPS AND CAREER DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN EMERGING ADULTHOOD
- the
relational context
has been posited in several major theories of career development (Super, 1957; Vondracek, Lerner, & Schulenberg, 1986)
- the
attachment theory
may serve as an organizing framework for the various relationally-based perspectives (Blustein, Prezioso, & Schultheiss, 1995)
Introduction I
parental attachment
career environment exploration (Ketterson & Blustein, 1997)
greater commitment to a career decision (Blustein et al., 1991; Scoot & Church, 2001)
career decision making self-efficacy (
CDSE
) (Ryan et al., 1996; O’Brien et al., 2000;)
career indecisiveness
(fear of commitment) (Wolfe & Betz, 2004)
peer attachment
progress in committing to career choices (Felsman & Blustein, 1999)
CDSE

(Wolfe & Betz, 2004)
career indecisiveness
(fear of commitment) (Wolfe & Betz, 2004)
ROMANTIC ATTACHMENT
II. The importance of romantic attachment during EA period - more important attachment figures than friends

I. Interdependence of career development and romantic relationships in EA
(van Dulmen et al., 2014; Branje et al., 2014)
Aim of our study I.

Examine relational attachments (parental, friend, romantic partner) of EAs
in connection with their career identity

Self-concept Clarity

(Campbell, 1990)
- refers to the extent to which individuals describe themselves in positive
and consistent ways
Avoidant Mother
Anxious Mother
Self-concept Clarity
Study Commitment
Work Commitment
CDMSE
Career Indecision
Avoidant Father
Anxious Father
Anxious Friend
Anxious Partner
Avoidant Friend
Avoidant Partner
-.085
-.102
Study Commitment
Work Commitment
CDMSE
Career Indecision
-.056
-.022
-.003
-.004
-.031
-.040
.033
.043
χ2(df)=12.32 (10), CFI=.99, RMSEA=.03
Self-concept Clarity
Study Commitment
Study Commitment
Work Commitment
Work Commitment
CDMSE
CDMSE
Career Indecision
Career Indecision
-.099
-.098
-.021
-.021
-.002
-.002
-.041
-.041
.043
.043
χ2(df)=7.13 (10), CFI=1.00, RMSEA=.00
Self-concept Clarity
Career Indecision
Career Indecision
CDMSE
CDMSE
Work Commitment
Work Commitment
Study Commitment
Study Commitment
-.092
-.298***
-.001
-.004
-.018
-.059**
-.035
-.113***
.037
.121***
Self-concept Clarity
Career Indecision
CDMSE
Work Commitment
Study Commitment
Study Commitment
Work Commitment
CDMSE
Career Indecision
-.154*
-.160*
-.002
-.002
-.034
-.036*
-.063*
-.066*
.066*
.069*
-.017
-.052
-.033
.013
-.092
-.027
-.107
-.117
.016
.038
-.025
-.152*
-.044
-.156*
.125*
-.097
χ2(df)=21.63 (10), CFI=.97, RMSEA=.07
-.020
-.062
-.058
-.042
-.075
-.095
.126
.004
χ2(df)=15.01 (10), CFI=.99, RMSEA=.04
-.063
-.031
.029
-.036
-.048
.028
-.061
.008
Methods
Participants
- 737 EAs in a relationship at T1 or T2


Measures

ECR-RS
(Fraley, Heffernan, Vicary, & Brumbaugh, 2011)
- 6 items measuring AVOIDANCE (“I prefer not to show this person how I feel deep down”)
- 3 items measuring ANXIETY (“I often worry that this person doesn't really care for me”)
Avoidant mother (Cronbach's Alpha=.92)
Anxious mother (Cronbach's Alpha=.78)

Avoidant best friend (Cronbach's Alpha=.90)
Anxious best friend (Cronbach's Alpha=.88)

GIDS
(Bosma, 1985)
Attachment
Study and Work Commitment
- 7 items measuring STUDY COMMITMENT ("Are your studies personally very important for your life?”)
(Cronbach's Alpha T1=.70; Cronbach's Alpha T2=.82)

- 7 items measuring WORK COMMITMENT ("Is your work personally very important for your life?”)
(Cronbach's Alpha T1=.90; Cronbach's Alpha T2=.89)
Avoidant father (Cronbach's Alpha=.90)
Anxious father (Cronbach's Alpha=.86)
Avoidant romantic partner (Cronbach's Alpha=.87)
Anxious romantic partner (Cronbach's Alpha=.87)
Career Decision Making Self-Efficacy
CDMSE - SF
(Betz, Klein, & Taylor, 1996)
- OCUPATIONAL INFORMATION (5 items) ("I can find out about the average yearly earnings of people in an occupation")
(Cronbach's Alpha T1=.71; Cronbach's Alpha T2=.71)
Career Indecision
VIS
(Holland, Daiger, & Power, 1980)
- 7 items measuring CAREER INDECISION ("I am uncertain about the occupations I could perform well")
(Cronbach's Alpha T1=.85; Cronbach's Alpha T2=.87)
Self-concept Clarity
Self-concept Clarity
(Campbell, Trapnell, Heine, Katz, Lavallee, & Lehman, 1996)
- 12 items measuring Self-CONCEPT CLARITY ("In general, I have a clear sense ofwho I am and what I am")
(Cronbach's Alpha T1=.88; Cronbach's Alpha T2=.89)
Aim of our study II.
Explore whether self-concept clarity might mediate
the relationship of EA's relational attachments with their career identity
Procedure
Discussion
Introduction II
Parents

Mother
Direct effect
: maternal attachment - career variables



Father
None



Friend
Indirect effect
: friend attachment (anxious friend) - career variables


Romantic Partner
Indirect effect
: romantic attachment - career variables

- no connection between parental attachment & self-concept clarity


- connection between friend attachment and romantic attachment and self-concept clarity

-
attachment to peers influence thinking about the self and consequently career development

- the role of
cognitive aspect
of the peer attachment in career development of EAs

- the role of
friends
as well as the role of
romantic partners
for the self-concept of EAs

- the role of
emotional support
from parents (mothers)
in career development of EA

Strenghts


- number of participants

- including of 4 attachment figures

Limitations

- more females in our sample
Thank you for your comments & ideas
gender
age
parental education
working/studying status
career-relevancy of work experience
length of the relationship
Control Variables
- Parental attachment as being connected to career identity development in EAs
(O’Brien et al., 2000; Scoot & Church, 2001)

-
Maternal attachment
as more imortant than paternal in relation with career identity development - especially for girls (Wolfe & Betz, 2004; Murphy, Blustein, Bohlig, & Platt, 2010).

(Meeus, Branje, van der Valk, & de Wied, 2007; Umemura, Lacinová, & Macek)
examined romantic attachment and career decision making process in EA (Downing & Nauta, 2010)
III. Mother, Father, Friends, Partner - fulfill different attachment needs in EA (Markiewicz et al., 2006)
ONE STUDY
Mediation models
the role of mediating self-defining variables

(e.g., Tokar et al., 2003)
coherent, secure ego identity is an important precursor to effective career decision making (Blustein et el., 1995)
- empirically connected with attachment (Wu, 2009),
with career identity processes (Schwartz et al., 2011)
in mediation studies - attachment functioning measured as general experience in relationships (e.g., Braunstein-Bercovitz, 2013)
- GOAL SELECTION (4 items) ("I can choose a career that will fit my preferred lifestyle")
(Cronbach's Alpha T1=.81; Cronbach's Alpha T2=.82)
1. descriptive statistics
2. longitudinal measurement invariance
3. SEM
- direct concurrent models
- indirect concurrent models
- direct cross-lagged models
- indirect cross-lagged models
DISCUSSION
I. supporting the notion that
attachment is contributing to CDM process

II. identifying
COS as a mediator
of the relationship between attachment and CDM process

III. stressing the role of a
partner as the most influential attachment figure
in self-defining and CDM process

Suggestion
- too long gap between the testing
- measuring attachment figures separately in mediation studies
The value of my dissertation

- add to the knowledge in the field of career identity development in EAs, to theories of career choice and development
- in Czech Republic - internationally

- inspiration for further research (?)
- ideas for career guidance and counseling (CDSE method?)
Full transcript