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Unit 3 - Disease Transmission

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Sean Kasak

on 21 November 2017

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Transcript of Unit 3 - Disease Transmission

Hinsdale Central Health Education

UNIT 5 - Communicable &
Non-Communicable Disease

Communicable
Diseases

a disease that is spread from one living thing to another or through the environment
Communicable Disease
Protozoa
Common Pathogens
Wash your hands!
Prevention
The INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE response is general, or nonspecific; it works against all types of pathogens.
T-Cells and B-Cells
Lymphocytes
Pre-Test
How much do you know about disease transmission?
Question 2
Question 4
Question 5
Question 3
Question 6
Question 7
Question 8
Question 9
Question 10
Which is NOT a pathogen that
causes disease?

a. Fungi
b. Rickettsias
c. Toxins
d. Bacteria
What is the single most effective
way to prevent disease?

a. get vaccinated
b. drink plenty of water
c. regular handwashing
d. washing food properly
Colds can be transmitted through

a. direct contact.
b. indirect contact.
c. airborne transmission.
d. All of the above
Which does NOT take place in the body when an injury happens?

a. Blood flows to the wound.
b. Phagocytes attack invading pathogens.
c. Skin begins to grow back.
d. Pus begins to form.
Which is NOT an antibody cell?

a. White blood cells
b. Antigens
c. T cells
d. Lymphocytes
Which is the first stage of the immune response?

a. T cells bind to antigens.
b. Plasma cells release antibodies.
c. Antibodies destroy pathogens.
d. Pathogens invade the body.
Which type of vaccine uses inactivated pathogens?

a. Live-virus vaccines
b. Killed-virus vaccines
c. Toxoids
d. Second-generation vaccines
The common cold and flu are caused by

a. viruses.
b. vectors.
c. bacteria.
d. antibodies.
Hepatitis is

a. an inflammation of the liver.
b. an upper respiratory infection.
c. one of the top ten causes of death in the U.S.
d. easily cured.
Which is one of the biggest factors of emerging infections?

a. Population growth
b. Development of new antibiotics
c. Lack of handwashing
d. Bioterrorism
Question 1
Question 1
Which is NOT a pathogen that causes disease?

c. Toxins

Pathogens include viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, and rickettsias
Question 2
What is the single most effective
way to prevent disease?

c. regular handwashing

Handwashing is the single most effective way to prevent the spread of disease
Question 3
Colds can be transmitted through

d. All of the above

Sneezing can result in direct contact, indirect contact, and airborne transmission of a cold virus.
Which does NOT take place in the body when an injury happens?

a. Blood flows to the wound.
b. Phagocytes attack invading pathogens.
c. Skin begins to grow back.
d. Pus begins to form.
Question 4
Which does NOT take place in the body when an injury happens?

c. Skin begins to grow back.

In an inflammatory response, blood and cells such as phagocytes, flood a wound and begin fighting infection.
Question 5
Which is NOT an antibody cell?

b. Antigens

An antigen is a substance that triggers immune responses such as an attack by antibodies.
Question 6
Which is the first stage of the immune response?

d. Pathogens invade the body.

Pathogen invading the body is the first stage, which triggers the rest of the eight stages.
Question 7
Which type of vaccine uses inactivated pathogens?

b. Killed-virus vaccines

Killed-virus vaccines use inactivated pathogens to stimulate an immune response.
Question 8
The common cold and flu are caused by

a. viruses.

The common cold and influenza, or the flu, are viral infections
Question 9
Hepatitis is

a. an inflammation of the liver.

Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. There is Hepatitis A, B, and C.
Question 10
Which is a factor of emerging infections?

c. Lack of handwashing

Emerging infections are caused by population movement, resistance to antibiotics, and agents of bioterrorism
Causes of Communicable Diseases
Infection by pathogens
infection
a condition that occurs when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage body cells
pathogen
an organism that causes diseases
Viruses
pieces of genetic material surrounded by a protein coat
By themselves they are inactive - they need living cells to reproduce
Bacteria
single-celled microorganisms
Most bacteria are harmless, and many types are essential to life.
For example, the bacteria in your digestive system help digest food and even make some of the vitamins that you need
Fungi
Plantlike organisms, like molds and yeasts, that can cause diseases of the lungs, the mucous membranes, and the skin
Single-celled microorganisms that are larger and more complex than bacteria
Malaria is an example of a disease caused by protozoa
Rickettsias
Rickettsias resemble bacteria, and often enter the body through insect bites
Athletes foot is an example of a disease caused by fungi
Insects like fleas or lice are common transmitters of rickettsias. Rocky mountain spotted fever is the most frequently reported illness spread by rickettsias
How diseases spread
DIRECT CONTACT
INDIRECT CONTACT
Touching
Biting
Kissing
Sexual contact
Puncture wounds
Childbirth
Contact with infected animals
Examples of direct contact include:
Examples of indirect contact include:
Contaminated objects
For example, touching a dirty doorknob and then letting the pathogens into your body by rubbing your eyes or eating with those unclean hands
Vectors
Vectors are organisms that carry and transmits pathogens to humans or other animals
Common examples include flies, mosquitos, and ticks.
Contaminated food and water
Food improperly handled or stored, harmful bacteria can develop. The same is true for water that can be contaminated by germs or human/animal waste
AIRBORNE TRANSMISSION
When an infected person sneezes or coughs, pathogens are released into the air as tiny droplets that can travel as far as 10 feet
Even when the droplets evaporate, the pathogens may float on dust particles until they are inhaled.
Prevent vector-borne illnesses
Before and after you eat
After using the restroom
Before/after putting in contact lenses or applying makeup
After touching an object handled by an infected person
Make sure you use insect repellent and wear clothing that can prevent bugs from having bare skin to bite or infect
Eat well and exercise to boost immune system
Avoid sharing personal items, such as eating utensils
Handle food properly, and do not consume expired food
Avoid tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs
Abstain from sexual contact
Cover your mouth when you cough or sneeze, and wash your hands after using a tissue
Practice Healthy Behaviors
How our body defends itself against invading pathogens
Physical and Chemical Barriers
The
skin
is the first line of defense against many pathogens, providing a tough layer of skin cells surrounding the body.
SKIN
Tears
and
saliva
contain enzymes that destroy many pathogens
TEARS
and
SALIVA
Many parts of your body, including your mouth, nose, and bronchial tubes, are lined with
mucus membranes
, which produce mucus, a sticky substance that traps pathogens until they are disposed of.
MUCUS
MEMBRANES
Cilia
are hairlike projections that line many parts of our respiratory system and sweep mucus and pathogens to the throat, where they can be swallowed or coughed out.
CILIA
The stomach produces
gastric juice
which destroys many pathogens that enter through the nose and mouth.
GASTRIC
JUICES
The immune system has
two major defense strategies
SPECIFIC DEFENSES work against particular pathogens
ANTIGEN - A substance that is capable of triggering an immune response. They are found on the surfaces of pathogens and in toxins.
Specific Defenses – specific defenses react to invasion as a result of the body’s ability to RECOGNIZE CERTAIN PATHOGENS AND DESTROY THEM.

The process by which this happens is known as the immune response.
microorganisms
blood vessels
bloodstream
swelling
Phagocytes
Pus
tissue repair
specific defenses
There are two types of lymphocytes:
T cells and B cells.
The soldiers of the immune system defense force
•_________________________ trigger the production of B cells and killer T cells

•__________________________ attack and destroy infected body cells. They do not attack the pathogens themselves, only the infected cells.

•___________________________ coordinate the activities of other T- cells. They “turn off” or suppress helper T cells when the infection has been cleared.

•___________________________ are lymphocytes that produce antibodies. Each B cell is programmed to make one type of antibody specific to a particular pathogen
Leukocytes -White Blood Cells
Two Types

cells that chew up invading organisms
PHAGOCYTES
A lymphocyte is a specialized white blood cell that coordinates and performs many of the functions of specific immunity
LYMPHOCYTES
Helper T-Cells
Killer T-Cells
Suppressor T-Cells
B-Cells
The two kinds of lymphocytes are
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes.
Lymphocytes start out in the bone marrow and either stay there and mature into B cells, or they leave for the thymus gland, where they mature into T cells.
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes have separate functions:
B cells
are like the body's military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defenses to lock onto them.
T cells
are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has identified.
The Role of Memory Lymphocytes
Some T-cells and B-cells that have been activated by antigens become
MEMORY CELLS
These cells circulate in your blood stream through the
lymphatic system.

When they recognize a former invading pathogen the immune system uses
antibodies and killer T-cells
in a quick defense to stop it.

This process is what allows us to develop
immunities
to certain diseases
Osmosis
13.What killed Thrax?
1. What bad habit does Frank perform that causes him to become ill?

2. What type of cell
is Osmosis Jones?
3.Where does Mayor Phleming live?

4. Name 2-3 lines of defense that Thrax got through.
5. What were Frank’s
symptoms of getting sick?
6. What is Drix?
7. What type of virus is placing bets on the streets and is now an informant for Osmosis?
8. What type of germ rode in on the oyster?
9. What did Osmosis do to protect him from the germ on the oyster?
10.What is Thrax’s plan to kill Frank?
11.What part of Frank’s body controls the temperature?
12. Name 3 ways Frank could have prevented this entire illness?
Eating dirty/contaminated food
White Blood Cell
In the brain
Falling into a cup
of rubbing alcohol
1. Mouth
2. Mucus membranes
3. Saliva
4. Stomach Acid
1. Sore throat
2. Cramping
3. Exhaustion
4. Fever/sweating
Cold medicine
Influenza vaccine
Food poison bacteria
Made him vomit
Give him a deadly
high fever
Hypothalamus

The hypothalamus is an area of the brain that produces hormones that control:

Body Temperature
Hunger
Moods
Release of hormones from many glands, especially the pituitary gland
Sex drive
Sleep
Thirst
1. Eat healthier
2. Exercise
3. Practice good hygiene
4. Avoid contaminated food
Jones
CANCER
What is it?
Cancer is an uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells
You have approximately 100 trillion cells in your body. They are constantly growing, dividing, dying, and replacing themselves. When abnormal cells reproduce rapidly and uncontrollably, they can build up inside otherwise normal tissue. This growth is called "cancer".

Your body destroys several cells of your body that could easily go on to become cancer cells each day due to abnormal cell division and spontaneous mutations, but luckily our body quickly destroys these cells before they can proceed in causing issues. However, there are times when the body cannot stop this process.
How Cancer Harms
the Body
When abnormal cells build up in the body, they can form a
TUMOR
, which is an abnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in the body
Two Types of Tumors
Benign
Malignant
(Non-Cancerous)
(Cancerous)
Benign tumors grow slowly. They are surrounded by membranes which prevent them from spreading.
Even if it does not spread, it may not be completely harmless:
Example: A benign tumor in the brain could block the brain's blood supply
Malignant, or cancerous, tumors do not stay in one place. It spreads to neighboring tissues and enters the blood or lymph nodes to travel to other parts of the body.
Metastasis
When cancer spreads from the point where it originated in the body to other parts of the body.
As cancer cells spread throughout the body, they divide and form new tumors
RISK FACTORS
Carcinogens -
Tobacco use & Radiation
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
(HPV, Hepatitis B)
Dietary Factors
Cancer in family history
THIS COULD CAUSE A STROKE!!
(A stroke is an interruption of blood flow to the brain)
FOR THE TEST

Communicable disease
Noncommunicable disease
Emerging infection
Infection
Pathogen
Bacteria
Vector
Viruses
Antibody
Toxin
Heart Attack
Allergy
Diabetes
Benign
Stroke
Cancer
Tumor
Malignant
Biopsy
Metastasis
Immune system
Immunity
Inflammatory response
Antigen
Vaccine
Phagocyte
Lymphocyte
Autoimmune Disease
REVIEW TIME!!!
Partner Quizzes
You are going to make a QUIZ that you are going to share with at least 2 people. Your 15-20 question quiz should have the following format:
5 - 10 multiple choice questions
5 - 10 True/False questions
5 Fill in the blank questions
An answer key that is kept SEPARATE from the quiz to have the partners check after they're done taking your quiz.
Use your guided notes and the textbook to help create your quiz. This will be your participation grade for the day!
Communicable vs.
Non-Communicable Diseases

What is the difference?
Diseases that are spread from one living thing to another or through the environment
Non-Communicable
Diseases
A disease that is
not
transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment
Now that we know the difference...
On your guided notes or scrap sheet of paper, let's check your disease knowledge:
Name at least one communicable and non-communicable disease that affects each body system below:
Skeletal, muscular, digestive/excretory, circulatory, respiratory, immune, integumentary (skin/nails/hair), reproductive, endocrine




The Bubonic Plague (Black Death) was caused by a bacterium named
Yersinia pestis
, which was a zoonotic disease, meaning it was transmit between species. It was circulated around by rodents and fleas and killed an estimated 75 million people between 1347 and 1351, but some researchers believe the mortality total could have reached as high as 200 million.

Bubonic plague is still prevalent in more than 20 countries

The San Francisco plague of 1900–1904 was an epidemic of bubonic plague centered on San Francisco's Chinatown. It was the first plague epidemic in the continental United States. There were 121 cases identified, including 113 deaths. Pales in comparison to how the very same disease wiped out most of Europe, doesn't it?
What type of pathogen caused the most deadly plague in human history, and how many did it kill? How do you think it died out?
What was the first plague epidemic in the continental United States?
Seriously?! (Real Illnesses/Diseases)
These illnesses might be hard to believe, but they're real!
Elephantiasis
Progeria is caused by a single tiny defect in a child's genetic code, but it has devastating and life-changing consequences. On average, a child born with this disease will be dead by the age of 13. As they see their bodies fast forward through the normal process of ageing they develop striking physical symptoms, often including premature baldness, heart disease, thinning bones and arthritis. Progeria is extremely rare, there are only around 48 people living with it in the whole world. However, there is a family that has five children with the disease.
Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is best known from dramatic photos of people with grossly enlarged or swollen arms and legs. The disease is caused by parasitic worms, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, all transmitted by mosquitoes. Lymphatic filariasis currently affects 120 million people worldwide, and 40 million of these people are seriously diseased.

Progeria
When an infected female mosquito bites a person, she may inject the worm larvae, called microfilariae, into the blood. The microfilariae reproduce and spread throughout the bloodstream, where they can live for many years. Often disease symptoms do not appear until years after infection. As the parasites accumulate in the blood vessels, they can restrict circulation and cause fluid to build up in surrounding tissues. The most common, visible signs of infection are excessively enlarged arms, legs, genitalia, and breasts.
Hypertrichosis
(Werewolf Syndrome)
Hypertrichosis (also called Ambras syndrome) is an abnormal amount of hair growth over the body; extensive cases of hypertrichosis have informally been called werewolf syndrome, because the appearance is similar to the werewolf.


The two distinct types of hypertrichosis are generalized hypertrichosis, which occurs over the entire body, and localized hypertrichosis, which is restricted to a certain area.Hypertrichosis can be either congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life. The excess growth of hair occurs in areas of the skin with the exception of androgen-dependent hair of the pubic area, face, and axillary regions.
If people with this rare disease are caught in the sun, their skin will blister. Some of them have pain and blistering as soon as the sun touches their skin. The porphyrias are a group of rare inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes that normally participate in the production of porphyrins and heme. They manifest with either neurological complications or skin problems or occasionally both.
Cutaneous Porphyria
(Vampire's Disease)
Pica
(The urge to eat non-food substances)
Pica is characterized by an appetite for substances largely non-nutritive, such as ice, clay, chalk, dirt, or sand.According to DSM-IV criteria, for these actions to be considered pica, they must persist for more than one month at an age where eating such objects is considered developmentally inappropriate, not part of culturally sanctioned practice and sufficiently severe to warrant clinical attention.

The most common, the consumption of ice can be considered very devastating to the maintenance to the body as there is a high risk of tooth cracking, enamel deterioration, and jaw joint strain.
There were a TON of individuals who got the virus using DIRECT, INDIRECT, and AIRBORNE transmission methods. Did you catch them all?

Lets discuss some of the different methods of transmission! There was a TON!
Medical Chart
How long do people live after they get sick with the virus? What is the mortality rate?






2-3 days at best without medical intervention, but some can die within 24 hours from the infection.

The mortality rate without medical support is 100%.
-Canadian Cancer Society
Stages of Cancer
We recognize four different stages of cancer. The earlier cancer is found, the higher the chance of successfully treating that type of cancer and/or increasing the survival rate of the individual.

We typically don't say we've "cured" cancer, as we have no way to know that every single cancer cell in the body is gone. Instead we say that the person is in REMISSION. There are two types
Partial remission
means the cancer is still there, but your tumor has gotten smaller -- or in cancers like leukemia, you have less cancer throughout your body. Some doctors tell patients to think of their cancer as “chronic,” like heart disease. It’s something you will need to continue to check. If you’re in partial remission, it may mean you can take a break from treatment as long as the cancer doesn’t begin to grow again.
Complete remission
means that tests, physical exams, and scans show that all signs of your cancer are gone. Some doctors also refer to complete remission as “no evidence of disease (NED).” That doesn’t mean you are cured.
Some cancer cells can remain unnoticed in the body for years after treatment. If a cancer returns after it has been in remission, it’s called a “recurrence.”
-Melinda Ratini, DO, MS
PSA - Don't Self Diagnose!
Regularly checking you body and performance screenings is a GREAT habit to get into. HOWEVER, be wary about self-diagnosing! Many conditions share similar signs & symptoms, so it is easy to end up on the internet looking at a dire self-prognosis when in fact it is most likely a minor issue.

Consider regularly discussing concerns with your primary care physician during physicals and check ups, and be sure to be open and honest about everything when it comes to getting to the bottom of a health issue.
1. Villagers in Zaire - INDIRECT - Drinking water from a well contaminated by the infected monkey.
2. Monkey Smuggler / Security - DIRECT - Infected monkey touched his finger as he fed it a banana
3. Jimbo (Monkey Smuggler) - INDIRECT - Monkey spit in his face
4. Jimbo on airplane - INDIRECT/DIRECT - Touching anyone/anything on the plane. Boy ALMOST eats the cookie. (Phew!)
5. Rudy (Pet Store Owner) - DIRECT - Monkey scratched his arm, drawing blood
6. Pet store monkey - Swipes the infected banana from Betsy and eats it, becoming infected.
7. Jimbo's Girlfriend/Wife - DIRECT - Kissed him at the airport
8. Henry (Blood Lab Tech) - INDIRECT - Machine didn't stop when opened, reached inside and glass broke and sprayed infected blood in his face/eyes
9. Doctor treating Henry - AIRBORNE - Doctor may/may not have been infected as it was shown that Henry was carrying the mutated (airborne) strain.
10. Hospital Staff - INDIRECT/DIRECT - Once Jimbo and his wife were admitted, they may have infected any doctors, nurses, or patients that they came in contact with or that made contact with anything they touched and contaminated
11 - Movie theater patrons (1) - AIRBORNE - Henry was coughing up a storm (as shown by the contaminated air particles) which others breathed in.
12 - Movie theater patrons (2) - DIRECT - On the way out of the theater to go get water, he pushed through a crowd of people by the concession stand, contacting a lot of people in the process.
13. Movie theater patrons (3) - INDIRECT - Henry's chair he sat in would be infected, as well as the concession stand he touched and fell in front of.
14. Henry's girlfriend - INDIRECT / DIRECT / AIRBORNE - Was shown in the hospital to be suffering from the beginning stages of infection. Henry could have given it to her using all/any of the three transmission methods.
15. Hospital patrons - AIRBORNE - One man in quarantine contracts the virus from the air vents. The hospital fills with people, as many arrive with no masks or safeguards. Workers who are not wearing protective equipment are exposed.
16. Mother in Cedar Creek and her family - INDIRECT /AIRBORNE - The mother was sitting at the table awaiting the army to take her away. s in contact with the furniture and was breathing without protective equipment.
17. Casey - AIRBORNE - Casey's suit tears while he is in the laboratory, exposing him to the virus which he breathes in. He tries to quickly leave and disinfect the suit and remove himself from the contamination, but is too late.
18. Robin - INDIRECT - While trying to quickly treat Casey when he starts seizing on the bed, she is administering an IV into his bloodstream. She accidentally pricks herself with Casey's infected blood on her hand.
19 - Man on the 'Thai Cook' Ship - DIRECT - The man who originally found the monkey was shown in the picture to have Betsy on his shoulder.
20. Sam - AIRBORNE / DIRECT - Removes his bio-suit to be close to his wife as he thought she lay dying. He places her hand on his face before Major. Salt comes into the room with the anti-serum.

What other ones did you catch that aren't up here?
The name of the virus is "MOTABA". The disease was classified as a viral hemorrhagic pathogen, which is extremely lethal (it is considered a level 4 pathogen, which is the highest level according to the movie)

It is spread initially by direct or indirect contact before mutating and allowing it to spread via airborne methods. It infects the person, showing signs and symptoms within 24 hours that turn lethal within a few days at best.


What is the name of the virus? How does it work to kill the person?
After it is transmit, early stages of infection have signs of a high fever, disorientation, fainting, malaise (general discomfort or uneasy feeling).

In later stages it causes the fever to reach a dangerous/lethal level, rupturing of internal organs and/or organ failure.
What are the signs & symptoms after being infected by the virus?
What do they mean when they say the virus has mutated?
Over time pathogens may change slightly. These are called different "strains" of the disease. These strains are different from previous generations of the disease and in some instances may have the ability to adapt and change to better survive their environment.

In the case of Motaba, a new strain of the virus from repeated infections was produced that had a thicker cell membrane which allowed it to be spread in the air like the flu, whereas before it could only be spread via direct or indirect methods.


Why is it dangerous if a virus mutates? Relate this to real world scenarios involving disease.
What is E-1101? Why isn’t it working on the Cedar Creek Motaba?
Pathogens of any type that mutate and become stronger become harder to treat, or can even become incurable. There are several strains of the different pathogens that cause many major illnesses, and one major concern of the medical community is how "superbugs" which resist modern treatments are becoming more prevalent.

A few modern day examples is how the influenza virus mutated and causes issues related to strains which we referred to as "Avian Flu" and "Swine Flu". Fun Fact: Currently Gonorrhea, a STD, is treatable but has been evolving over time to resist antibiotic treatments. This has medical professionals concerned that Gonorrhea (as well as several other diseases) might be incurable in the near future.
Why are the characters so desperately trying to find the host monkey? What can they accomplish by doing so?
After the original strain infected the town in Zaire, certain government officials including Major General Mclintock (Sutherland) and Brigadier General Ford (Freeman) brought copies of the virus back to manufacture and use for biological warfare. E-1101 was an anti-serum that was created so that if soldiers had to use this virus during warfare they would not be affected or could be quickly treated.

The problem is that the government didn't know the virus was not completely wiped out after bombing the town, and survived on in the wild, eventually having an infected monkey that infected another town begin what would eventually become a pandemic. The monkey had a strain of the virus that mutated, allowing it to live longer in the environment and be spread through airborne methods, and this strain is unaffected by E-1101, which means they have no way to treat or cure the virus at this time.
This monkey had an immune system that produced antibodies that allowed it to carry the virus but not suffer the effects of infection. The monkey's body had antibodies that would target and eliminate the virus, which would be extremely valuable in producing an anti-serum that could help treat or cure Motaba infection.

However, this is a VERY complex science, and not as simple as it sounds. There are several different types of viruses out there that cannot treat victims as quickly and effectively as the movie portrays even if the doctors had access to strong antibodies that resist infection.


REALITY CHECK - Movies are good at stretching the truth, making stuff up, or not being entirely realistic. What were some aspects of the movie you'd question for accuracy? Why? What other parts of the movie/story did you feel needed more info or clarification?
Reality: Colonel Sam Daniels and his company would likely still be held accountable to some degree for the following:
Insubordination
Resisting an order
Rerouting a military device without authorization
Lying to military personnel
Theft of a military device (cars/helicopters)
Breaking and entering without a warrant
Flying and landing a military device in potentially restricted airspace on a foreign vessel without authorization.
Breaking and entering a TV facility and overtaking a live broadcast.
Discharge of an unauthorized weapon (fired missiles into a forest!)

REALITY CHECK - Other things to question:
How did the crew get the Anti-Serum created and administered so quickly/effectively?
It is a long and laborious process to create an anti-serum after acquiring the host antibodies, even though they had a “roadmap from E1101” to expedite the process. It can take days, weeks, months, or more to get the anti-serum correct and approved.
How long does it take an anti-viral medication to take effect? How fast did it work in the movie?
Major Salt piloted a stolen chopper which managed to avoid radar detection as well as outran one of the most experienced helicopter pilots in the service. How ‘bout that?
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