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Transcript of History Timeline!!
By:Ali.H and Ayesha September 1 1939 Germany invades Poland! Nazi Germany with the cooperation of the Soviet Union and a small German allied Slovak contingent. This invasion is what sparked world war 2.It is also known as the September Campaign or the 1939 Defensive War. For the Nazi Germans it was codenamed "Fall Weiss" or "Case White".When the Nazi's invaded Poland all of Poland's western allies, United Kingdom,Australia and New Zealand declared war on Germany on 3 September soon followed by Canada (a week later), France and South Africa.
Basically after signing the Molotov- Ribbentrop Pact Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union occupied the entirety of Poland. It took them around a month. September 1- October 6 1939.
The Germans attacked from north,south and west, spreading thin defending their long borders, though the Polish forces were soon forced to withdraw. Germans gained an undisputed advantage after the mid-September Polish defeat in the battle of Bzura.
Polish allies such as United Kingdom and France delivered very little military aid to Poland. Polish forces began a withdrawal southeast in the Romanian bridgehead area where they were expecting a allied relief counterattack. On 17 September 1939 the Soviet Red Army invaded the eastern regions of Poland in cooperation with the Nazi's.
Soon the Polish government evacuated its forces to neutral Romania.By the first of October Soviets and Nazi's completely overran Poland. The rest of the Polish army including air forces were evacuated to Romania and Hungary. They eventually joined with the recreated Polish army in allied France and French mandated Syria also some went to the United Kingdom. Nazi Germany planes bombing Poland using Blitzkrieg tactic/strategy. Monday September 4,1939 British Royal Air Force attacks the German Navy. The first attack by RAF go in against the Nazi Warships in the Heligoland Bight. They attacked with 29 Wellington and Blenheim bombers. They bombed the Admiral Scheer but the bombs did not explode and they also damaged the cruiser Emden. 7 attacking aircraft are lost but the rest live. Sept 3 ,1939 Britain, France, New Zealand and Australia declare war on Nazi Germany. After the invasion of Poland the countries mentioned and others declared war on Nazi Germany. September 10,1939 Canada declares war on Nazi Germany It became the first time that Canada declared war on another country on its own.The Prime Minister at that time was William Mackenzie King. He hoped that the involvement of Canada would be limited to supplying war materials and such but it didn't remain the way he wanted it to. Canada's army at that time was 10 000 soldiers, defense budget was only 35 million, we only had 14 tanks,29 Bren guns,23 anti tank rifles and 5 small mortar guns. Though war had already reached
our homes even before Canada declared war
on Nazi Germany. On the third of September
a liner by the name of Athenia was torpedoed by German naval subs. 200 out of 1500 were Canadian and a girl by the name of Margaret Hayworth of Hamilton, Ontario. A state funeral was held for her and her death helped convince Canadians of the Nazi threat. William Lyon Mackenzie King Passenger liner Athenia October 1939 - April 1940 "The Phoney War" The phoney was most likely coined by a U.S Senator William Borah though the war has many names such as: "Twilight War as stated by Churchill and "Sitzkrieg" as stated by the Nazi's. "Sitzkrieg" means sitting war. It is the name given for the time period in Europe from October 1939- April 1940. After the blitzkrieg attack on Poland everyone expected a major retaliation against the Nazis' but nothing happened in terms of miltary retaliation therefore it is described as a phoney war. Though Britain was engaged in "bombing raids" but bombs were not being dropped, rather they were propaganda leaflets.The Secretary of State for War, Sir Kingsley Wood called them "truth raids" to show the German people how vunerable their country was to actual bombing raids, and that the Germans were to read about the evil of what the Nazi regime was doing. The leaflets in total summed up to 6 million copies or 13 tons of paper all dropped in one night, 3 September 1939. The name of the leaflets were called "Note to the German People". The main result of the "raids" were that the Nazi upgraded their anti-aircraft batteries. In conclusion it helped the Nazi's realize that their anti aircraft batteries were weak rather than turning the public on the Nazis'. Things were happening in the phoney war just the public of Britain were not aware of it. For example the sinking of Athenia and the Royal Oak both sent a clear message to Britain that Germans would sink passenger and military ships in the water not just ones of military importance. Also the public of Britain were not aware of the sinking of the Royal Oak until they heard it from a broadcast from Lord Haw-Haw's radio broadcast. These sinkings basically brought the war home to Britain. At this time the Canadian Prime Minister King was having the war he wanted to have. Only supplying the British rather than being in a military action against the Nazi's but his hopes came crashing down when the Nazi's invaded Denmark and Norway facing close to no resistance.At that time King knew that the phoney war was over and total war had began and he also knew Canada at one point would have to enter in military action and fight, most likely losing Canadian lives. Newspaper during the times of the "Phoney War" Planes over France heading to drop leaflets. April 1940 USSR Winter War against Finland in March 12 1940. The Soviets were engaged in a war against Finland. March 12, 1940 was the date the two countries signed a peace treaty. The Finns had fought very well in comparison to the size of their armies. Though they had exhausted their ammunition. For USSR they wanted to sign a peace treaty quickly because it was an embarassing war for them they had lost many casualties. 126 000 USSR soldiers lost to a much smaller Finns army. The USSR demanded the region of Korelia Southeast region of Finland and it was given to the USSR by the Finns. Invasion of Denmark The invasion of Denmark wasn't of great importance to the Nazi government it was rather looking to use it as a staging ground to attack a much greater target, of high importance strategically, the Norwegians. It was used as a precaution to the British response. The Nazi's offically claimed it as defending the Danish from the British. The Nazi called it "Operation Weserubung" The invasion began on April 9,1940 at 4:15 am. Nazi's crossed the border and entered neutral Denmark, which was in violation of the treaty the two countries signed a year earlier.When the Nazi disembarked their troops on the docks of Copenhagen the Danish were outnumbered and poorly equiped to fight. Though they did give a good fight in some parts of the country such as "The Royal Guard" in Copenhagen and troops in South Jutland. While this was going on Nazi planes dropped their leaflets over Copenhagen declaring that the Nazis' were protecting the Danish from Great Britain and France.The Danish intelligence and the ambassador did give warnings to the Danish government about a Nazi attack but was sadly ignored.Due to the fact that the Nazis' moved so quickly the Danish government did not offically declare war on the Nazis'.After 2 hours and 16 Danish soldiers dead the Danish government surrendered. Occupation of Norway The invasion of Norway was important to the Nazi's because Norway was located in a strategic position that would give the Nazi's access to importing iron ore from Sweden, through the port of Narvik, and Norway's extensive coastline would give the Nazi's power in the North sea and easing the passage of Nazi warships and subs into the waters of the Atlantic ocean. Also to reinforce the mentality of a Germanic empire.Norway was invaded on April 9, 1940. Hitler has issued the order on March 1, 1940 which also included the invasion of Denamark under the codename "Weserubung". It began the war in Western Europe and ended the "Phoney war". How it happened was that through neglect on the part of the minister of defence and minister of foreign affairs of Norway the Norwegians were ill prepared for the attack.The Nazi's used the famous blitzkrieg warfare method and attacked Norway from sea and air.Norways major ports from Oslo to Narvik were occupied by Nazi detachment troops.While this was going on Nazi paratroopers ,a single battalion, ( the first ever employed in warfare ) were dropped in to take Oslo and Stavanger airfieldsm which they succesfully took. The Nazi didn't face much resistance and got to thier objectives very quickly. All attempts done by the allies to help failed.The Nazi's won again without much trouble.Now the Nazis' had bases to attack the British if desired and gain precious iron ore from Sweden to supply their war materials and make weapons. Nazi soldiers going past a burning Norwegian village. Territory lost and tactics used to fight
the Winter War. May 10, 1940 Nazi invasion of Holland On May 10,1940 Nazi troops using the blitzkrieg tactic attacked Holland, Nazi bombers attacked Waalhaven airfield at 03.55. Precisely an hour later a paratrooper battalion was dropped on the airfield and it was captured.The Dutch fought hard but due to the element of surprise and superiority the Nazis' had the airfield could not be kept from the hands of the Nazis'. A vital bridge was located in Dordrecht and paratroopers were dropped in to capture it.That bridge would help greatly in getting the Nazis vehicles into Holland for the assault inland.The Dutch continued to show resistance in their waterways but the sheer power of the Nazi bombers wiped the Dutch resistance in the water.The same fate happened to the Dutch Air Force.Now the Nazi's position in Holland was perfect they had conquered a strategic bridge (land troops), airfield (air force power) and the southern sector of Rotterdam had been occupied, now the Nazi forces were ready to attack the heartland of Holland and make her surrender. On May 14, 1940 the Nazi's used the excuse that British troops had landed in the Maas River and began the attack on Rotterdam, no landing had occurred in the area.The attack started on 13.30 and within five hours Rotterdam was taken.Over the next two days Holland was in Nazi hands. The Dutch were just a major irritaion to the Nazis'.The bigger picture was to conquer Holland in order to get it out of the way in order to concentrate all their fire power/resources on France.That is Nazis used blitzkrieg to shock Holland into surrendering.Rotterdam would pay the price for it.30 000 civillian casulties in Rotterdam. Important locations in Holland. Rotterdam bombed Invasion of Holland video June 5 1940 France Falls Executed on June 5 1940 Nazi forces outflanked the Maginot line.The French and British had their troops placed on the Maginot line assuming that no tank could go through the Ardennes forest, though the Nazi did go through that Ardennes forest and outflanked the Maginot line and pushed deep into France.Italy an ally of the Nazis' declared war on France on 10 June.The French government fled quickly to Bordeaux.Paris was occupied on June 14.This was a great success for the Axis Powers.Phillipe Petain declared that he would request an armstice.On June 22 an armstice was signed, in which Hitler did not say a word in order to humiliate the French.The reason for the Nazi victory was superior communication, mobile troops, excellent training and careful planning. Hitler in front of the Eiffel Tower. September 3 1940 Operation Sea Lion (invasion of Britain) Operation Sea Lion was never carried out, it was just a plan. It was never carried out because the Nazis' lost the Battle of Britain which was fought entirely in the air. It was the RAF vs Luftwaffe and most importantly hundreds of Canadians fought alongside RAF pilots to defeat the Nazi pilots.It was an attempt by the Nazi's to win air superiority over the English Channel. The projected invasion included: Army Group A (6 divisions) invading Kent via the areas near Ramgate,Folkstone and Bexhill,Army Group A (4 divisions) invading Sussex and Hampshire via the area around Brighton and the Isle of Wight, Army Group B (3 Divisions) invading Dorset via Lyme Bay.Once these locations were taken they would encircle London,England and "easily" take it. The plan was simple in theory have complete control of the skies, then move in, but without complete control of the air the Nazi ships would be sitting targets for RAF. Since the Nazis' didn't have complete control of the skies, and the Battle of Britain was lost, the invasion was not carried out. This plan was orchestrated in Hitlers mind at this time Battle of Britain happened on August 15 1940. Battle Plans August 15,1940 Battle of Britain Battle of Britain was the first battle to be fought entirely in the air.It's objective was for the Nazi's to gain complete air superiority.Basically the RAF vs the Luftwaffe.The idea was once Luftwaffe gained air superiority then this would pave the way for a invasion by the fleets of the Nazis'.This did not happen thanks to the bravery of the RAF fighters and thanks to great technological advancements such as radar/Dowding System. Also their were great Canadian contributions in the Battle of Britain such as 112 Canadians who fought alongside the British. Canadians shot down many Messerschmitts while the RAF fighters were regrouping.Canadians fought bravely in spitfires and hurricanes destroying around 31 enemy aircraft and probably 43 more destroyed or damaged.Without Canadian contributions it would have been extremely difficult for the RAF fighters to achieve the same results. One very notable Canadian contribution is squadron 242 with the RAF which consisted of Canadians. They ran into 100 enemy aircraft over Essex on August 30 and claimed 12 victories and escaped unscathed. That was truly a show of how brave and strong our Canadian fighters were and are. Spitfires October 28, 1940 Italy invades Greece At 2:50 am on Sunday October 1940. The Italian ambassador was at the door steps of the Greek Prime Minister with an ultimatum.The ultimatum stated free passage for Italian soldiers through Greece from Albania.If the Greek government denied then the resistance would be broken by force of arms and weapons. The Greek Prime Minister denied at that moment and war began.This move was a surprise to even Hitler, who was an ally of Italy.Mussolini made a great strategic mistake according to Hitler. Mussolini had "bribed" Greek officials,to let Italy move freely ,in the government but no on knows if it even went past his agents to the officials or not.The battle was against an army (Greece) who wanted to fight tooth and nail to defend its anatomy and an Italian army who was very ill prepared and in a mountanious region against a very dedicated army. To make the odds even worst for the Italians, half of their fleet which was stationed at Taranto was destroyed by a British carrier based attack.Italy failed in conquering Greece and it was a humiliating battle for Mussolini. This became one of the first victories for the allies against the axis powers. Greek newspaper declaring war against Italy. June 22, 1941 Operation Barbarossa Code named Operation Barbarossa was the name for the invasion of the USSR.It was the largest invasion in the history of warfare with 3.9 million troops of the Axis Powers, 600 000 motor vehicles and 750 000 horses. This invasion would decide the victors, either USSR and the allies or Nazi and the Axis Powers.Also it was the largest manpower and casualties inflicting invasion in the entire war.Hitler wanted USSR badly because the labor shortage in Germany could be solved by demobilization of many soldiers, Ukraine would be a reliable source of agricultural products, improve Germany's geostrategic position and finally isolate the United Kingdom and the allies, controlling the Baku oilfields would give the Nazi's much needed oil for their economy.When Hitler saw the plans his generals had made he approved them all and signed War Directive 21 to the German High Command calling for a quick campaign to crush the USSR. Operation Barbarossa failed for many reasons such as the brutal cold weather in the USSR and the sheer dedication of the USSR soldiers to fight for their motherland. This failure lead to the fall of the Nazi empire. Also this invasion was the reason that 95% of all Nazi casualties from 1941 to 1944 and 65% of all Allied casualties from accumulated throughout the war.After operation Barbarossa Hitler attempted many battles inside the USSR such as Siege of Leningrad, Battle of Stalingrad and many other battles but all ended in failure for Hitler. This was a major turning point for the Allies.Though Hitler did capture 3 million Soviet POW's, many of them did not return alive. Very few lived.Hitler and his troops reached close to Moscow/ around it but was never able to capture it.Finally Italy and Romania declare war on the USSR due to the fact that the Nazi's engaged therefore they were obligated to declare war on the USSR. December 7 1941. Attack on Pearl Harbour Attack on Pearl harbour was a surprise attack on U.S.A. It was intended as a preventive attack on the American Navy to stay out of the war in the Pacific so the Japanese could conduct military actions in the Southeast on territories of United Kingdom and other allies of USA, without military intervention by the USA. It actually backfired and the United States was now in the war fully. The attack was made by 353 Japanese fighters from six aircraft carriers.The Japanese sank 4 aircraft carriers and damaged 8.Also 3 damaged cruisers and 3 destroyers, 2402 men were killed and 188 aircraft destroyed. But this was just a way to neutralize the American fleet in order to ensure they moved freely into Siam and Malaya. Dec 7/8 1941 Siam and Malaya invaded by Japan 70 000 men and 211 tanks were part of the 25th army of the Japanese army. And they were dropped in 3 ports Singora and Pattani in Siam and Kota Bharu just inside Malaya. British and Commonwealth forces numbered 88 000 but they were low on ammunition. The forces fought well against the Japanese. At this time Japanese destroyed British planes and ships and conquered Siam and Malaya. Their is a misconception that war in the Pacific started with the bombing of Pearl Harbour but it actually started with the attack on Siam and Malaya which started an hour and ten minutes before the attack on Pearl Harbour. Japanese troops in British Malaya December 25 1941 Japan Invades Hong Kong The battle in Hong Kong began shortly after 08.00 on December 8 less than eight hours after the attack on Pearl Harbour. And the Japanese outnumbered the Allies 4 to 1 ( 52000-14000 ) also the area lacked naval and air defences. The Japanese bombed the airport Kai Tak and destroyed many aircraft. In the end the allies had to give up Hong Kong due to the lack of resources but Canadians fought bravely in the battle,290 Canadians lost their lives and more than 1000 were either killed or wounded in the battle of Hong Kong or its aftermath and some Canadians endured four years of captivity before being freed.The Canadian battalions were called the Winnipeg Grenadiers, and The Royal Rifles of Canada. These were the first Canadian ground units to see action in the Second world war and they fought with valor.Sadly on Christmas Day they had to surrender. Canadian soldiers in Hong Kong Japanese troops enter Hong Kong August 19, 1942 Dieppe Raid The situation for the allies was not pretty in 1942.Everywhere the Nazi's were pushing, in USSR they were penetrating forward and in North Africa allies were being pushed back and USSR was calling for a second front to split Nazi resources and soldiers in two.The allies staged the invasion to see what was needed to make a succesful attack on the Nazis', and to shake the Nazis and finally to get information on the coastal defences. There was a major Canadian contribution in the battle of Dieppe, 5000 troops (fully trained) though a large amount of them died because the troops encountered a Nazi convoy at sea, detected increase in radio traffic in British coasts and double agents reported interest.237 ships approached the beaches and they were slaughtered. Tanks could not cross the rocky beaches. For 6 hours the Nazi troops opened fired and killed more than 900 Canadian troops and wounded 600+ finally 2000+ captured as POW's. Even though it was an slaughter it showed the allies what they needed for a succesful attack on the Nazi coastal defences. The names of the Canadian Regiments involved were: Royal Regiment of Canada in the Blue Beach, Calgary Regiment in tanks on red and white beach, Royal Hamilton Light Infantry in red and white beach and finally South Saskatchewan regiment on green beach and many more regiments. Canadian troops at Dieppe July 1943 Invasion of Sicily The invasion of Sicily was decided in the Casablanca conference when the allies decided that an invasion on Sicily would provoke the Nazis to disperse and shock Italy out of the war. It was called Operation Husky.The Canadians played a major role in the assault it included the First Canadian Infantry Division and the First Tank Brigade Division under the command of Major-General G.G. Simonds,the Canadians arrived late in the night of July 9 and fought alongside the British and American troops we were considered to be part of the British invasion force.We formed the left flank of the invasion.On July 15 we conquered the village of Grammichele, then we fought really hard and conquered the village of Agira. Our final task was to conquer Adrano and we did even though we faced rugged conditions in terms of terrain and enemy resistance.Sicily was later conquered and was done in just 38 days. December 1943 Bari air raid The air raid on Bari was done by Nazi troops on the Allies. It was a complete success and it called Little Pearl Harbour. It was done on December 2 1943.There were 105 Nazi Bombers that attacked and took out 27 cargo ships and a schooner in Bari Harbour.It lasted a little more than an hour.Some lives were lost due to the leakage of mustard gas from one of the ships and was covered up by American and British authorities for various reasons.This attack put out the port until 1944. A Junkers Ju 88 (Nazi bomber) June 6 ,1944 D-Day The invasion called Operation Overlord was a success or failure depending on which way a person chooses to look at it. The Canadians played a major role in it. They were given the duty to take Juno Beach.Also we were the only Allied troops to reach our D-Day objectives. The Canadian assault forces were the Third Canadian Infantry Division, commanded by Major General R. F. Keller and the Second Canadian Armoured Brigade, with Brigadier R.A. Wyman in charge. In total there were 14000 Canadian soldiers, 450 paratroopers (canadians) ,Royal Canadian Navy gave around 10 000 sailors and ships.Our Lancaster Bombers and skilled Spitfires also supported the invasion.Within 2 hours Canadian troops breached the Nazi lines and established the beachead. April 1945 On April 28,1945 Benito Mussolini was captured and killed.By his people. Benito Mussolini April 30 ,1945 Hitler commits suicide and so does his wife Eva Braun.There are several different accounts of how he died. May 7, 1945 Germany signs unconditional surrender. It was declared as an end to the war. May 8 1945 V-E Day is declared. August 6 1945 Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima. A B-29 Bomber named Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima at 8:15 am, the bomb was nicknamed "Little Boy".It had more power than 20 000 tons of T.N.T.It has been said that it shortened the war. And saved many "American" lives in the long run but the lose of civillian life was devastating. Dropping of bomb. Hiroshima after "little boy" August 9, 1945 Nagasaki bombed On Aug 9 ,1945 a B-29 Bomber dropped "Fat Man" on Nagasaki, Japan, the pilot was Maj. Gen. Charles W. Sweeney. Result of dropping the 2 bombs. In the 2 bombs dropped, 110 000 people were vaporised approximately and diseases and mutations continued for the next 50- 100 years. Another 80 000 injured and economies ruined. Not alot of good came from the atomic bombs. Nagasaki after dropping of the atomic bomb. August 10,1945 Americans Celebrate end of war Americans after the two bombs were dropped unoffically declared the end of the war and celebrated. People were out in the streets kissing, drinking, having a good time basically.Though the offical date in which Emperor Hiroshito of Japan surrendered on August 14, 1945. People celebrating in America. V-J Day Announcements October 24,1945 United Nations is Born UN was coined by U.S President Franklin D. Roosevelt.Its main objective is to restore and maintain peace in the world. It has many departments for maintaining order in every sector possible. Those departments are called Specialized Agencies.