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Electromagnetic Forces Timeline
Transcript of Electromagnetic Forces Timeline
Mrs. McGowan's 4th Period Class What are electromagnetic forces?
The force that is associated with electric and magnetic fields. It is responsible for atomic structure, chemical reactions, the attractive and repulsive forces of electrical charge and magnetism, and all other electromagnetic phenomena. It is carried by the photon.
History of Electromagnetic Forces Timeline William Gilbert (1540-1603) described and distinguished electric attractions from magnetic attractions. Otto von Guericke of Magdeburg (1602-1686) made a frictional electric machine with a revolving ball of sulphur which produced electricity. Francis Hauksbee (1666-1713) replaced the sulphur ball with a hollow glass tube. When the air in the glass tube was taken out, there were sparks and glows caused by the movement of charge. Stephen Gray (1666-1736) English tried to transmit the power of attraction based off of Hauksbee’s experiments. He noticed that at times, an electrified glass tube that was stopped with a cork attracted a feather to the cork. After confirming the communication of electricity through different materials, Gray determined that the 'electric virtue' could be carried over long distances. Charles-Francois Dufay (1698-1739) French was one of the first to make a theoretical generalization. Through his experiments, he derived the following rule: “an electrified body attracts neutral objects and repels the electrified ones”. Jean Desaguliers (1683-1744) English made the first generaliztions of the two kinds of electricity: 1) “A body electrical per se, is such a body in which one may excite electricity by rubbing, patting, hammering, melting, warming, or any other action on the body itself” 2) “A non-electric is such a body as cannot be made electrical by any action upon the body itself immediately, though it is capable of receiving the virtue (electricity) from an electric”. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) showed that atmospheric electricity was the same as common electricity. He argued that electricity was of one kind, and that exesses and deficiencies were responsible for the effects noted by Dufay. Luigi Galvani (1737-1798) and Alessandro Volta each made two discoveries that helped the scientific community make a transition from static electricity to electricity in motion. Galvani found that when a frog's leg is touched with one metal and the muscle is touched with another metal, the muscle contracts. This contraction is due to the flow of electricity from the nerve to the muscle. Volta's theory was that when two different metals are placed in contact, electricity flows from one to the other. To prove this, Volta made a pile that consisted of alternating zinc and silver disks that were separated by a wet cloth or card. Volta's pile became the first electrical source of a continuous action that didn’t involve mechanical work. The pile was the predecessor to the battery. Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806) used the torsion balance to show that the force between electrical charges had the same inverse-square dependence as gravitational forces. He also quantified the concept of electrical charge (the unit of charge is named after him). All of these scientists and their discoveries have impacted society in a tremendous way.