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A Resurgence of Nationalism
Transcript of A Resurgence of Nationalism
The Market Revolution
A Resurgence of Nationalism
This issue arose only five years after the end of the War of 1812 to threaten the unity of the nation. What was the issue? How was it resolved? What was the larger question? All of this was cloaked by the rising nationalism of the 1820s.
Control of the Western
regions of the U.S.
The U.S. was experiencing remarkable growth. Some thought it would make the country more unified.
However, this would lead to sectional tensions.
Memories of the Revolution, the creation of the Constitution, and a shared
belief in America's special destiny in the world fostered a romantic patriotism. This allowed America to experience an economic revolution for decades to come.
national market economy
There were many signs that the Panic of 1819 would be relieved by the economic growth of the 1820s. Improvements in transportation and the expanding range of business activity created a national market economy. Each area of the country could concentrate on a certain type of goods.
The South concentrated on growing cotton.
The North developed a factory system.
A "revolution" occurred in the construction of roads, canals, and eventually railroads. This allowed
merchants to have access to new markets and raw materials. Increased entrepreneurial techniques and technological advances made business expansion possible.
First used in 1795, the Philadelphia to Lancaster Turnpike was the 1st turnpike in America. By 1832, over 2,000 miles of road connected major cities.
The National or Cumberland Road was the first major
improved highway in the U.S. built by the federal government. Construction began in 1811. It was supposed to continue to St. Louis but the Panic of 1837 caused construction to end in Illinois.
The Conestoga wagon was a heavy, broad-wheeled covered wagon used in the 18th &19th centuries. While most preferred this type of wagon, most families used ordinary farm wagons and placed canvas covers on them.
By the mid-1820s, the nation's economy was growing more rapidly than its population. Three
occurrred in the 1820s and 30s: rapid increase, migration to the West, and movement to towns and cities. The black population increased more slowly than white. When the importation of slaves became illegal, the proportion of
steadily declined. The birth rate was not the key statistic but a high death rate.
U.S. in 1820
U.S. in 1860
epidemics/high birth rate
A result of increased urbanization was epidemics. Epidemics plagued the American population especially the devastating cholera plague in 1832. However, public health efforts gradually improved. Nothing else helped the population growth more than a high birth rate.
Immigration was not going to be a factor until the 1830s when immigrants would become an important source of labor for transportation construction.
against immigrants could be seen in anti-Catholic protests and
Samuel F. B. Morse
's "Foreign Conspiracy", which crusaded against the Pope and Catholicism.
In 1807, Robert Fulton's Clermont became the first commercially successful steamboat. It operated on the Hudson River between New York and Albany.
Watch steamboat DVD from 19th Century Turning Points now.
New York City
By 1810, New York City surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in America.
The superior natural harbor, the "dumping" of British goods, and the Erie Canal gave the city unrivaled access to the interior.
The "turnpike era" lasted from 1790-1830. The "Canal Age" began in the 1830s. Americans looked to water routes with the steamboat. New York was the first state to act in creating the Erie Canal between the Hudson River and Lake Erie. Known as "Clinton's Big Ditch" (after Gov. DeWitt Clinton), digging began in 1817 and was completed in 1825. It was the greatest constrution project America had ever undertaken. It was an engineering phenomenon and a financial success. The tolls brought in enough money to pay for its construction. Its success would link NY to the West and cause other states to embark in making canals as well. Towns boomed around canals as well.
After looking at the Erie Canal and the maps, watch "America, The Story of Us".
Major Canal Systems
The future of the American economy, however, would lay in the emergence of rail lines. Steam power allowed railroads to become a viable transportation method. Railroads and canals would come into direct competition with each other as railroads provided speed and year-round operation while canals were a cheaper mode of transportation.
The emergence of
allowed for the accumulation of large amounts of capital for manufacturers as well as banks, turnpikes, and railroad companies.
After viewing the graphics, watch 19th Century Turning Points.
The factory system truly revolutionized economic development. After the War of 1812, America switched from household workshops to the factory system. This would create a need for labor. There were two types of recruiting laborers. One brought whole families working together and a second type enlisted young women (more about that in part 3 of this unit).
While conditions in factories in America were noticeably better than in England, factory life was often difficult for workers. As conditions worsened,
formed. Manufacturers would now turn to immigrants who would have no leverage against their employers. Labor unions suffered against laws and courts that would continually rule against them. Early unions were usually local, social, and weak. We will learn a lot more about unions throughout the year.
What significant economic developments resulted from the War of 1812?
What changes were linked to the rise of the market economy?