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Teaching Strategies: A Beginners Guide

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Brendan Costello

on 9 May 2014

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Transcript of Teaching Strategies: A Beginners Guide

Teaching Strategies: A Beginners Guide
Name: Brendan Costello
Unit: LCB344 - Teaching Strategies
Lecturer and Tutor: Kylie Bradfield
Assignment 2

Semester 1, 2014

Purpose of The Presentation
The purpose of this presentation is to aid you as a beginning teacher, to begin to adopt and use certain teaching strategies to aid in catering for all students. In the modifications section of the presentation under each strategy description you will find the strength s and limitations of each strategy, as well as a modifications sections outlining the importance of catering for your students, which makes links to the UDL and CAST websites.

The Strategies included in this beginners package are:
Role - Play
Direct Instruction
Discussion
Problem Solving
Inquiry Based Research and
Small Group Work
Role- Play
This strategy sees students take on the role of a character or a historical figure to immerse themselves in the content.. It allows for the exploration and understanding of the different perspectives of events and situations.

Unlike
Direct Instruction
, the strategy allows for a more hands on approach to learning and exploring content in the classroom in which can aid in deepening the subject knowledge given to the students through interaction and play. (Turner & Bisset. 2012, p.106)



Below is an example of a Role - Play Activity conducted by year 4 students
Why Use This Strategy?
Benefits of Using Role - Play as a strategy Allows students to:

Develop a range of communication skills
Look at issues from different perspectives
Build their self confidence, self esteem and self image
Deepens their knowledge on how to deal with complex issues that arise not only in schools, but also in the wider communities.



(Turner & Bisset. 2012, p.106)
Limitations
Modifications

Problem - Solving
Why Use This Strategy?

Problem Solving as a strategy benefits students to build their problem solving skills.

Using real life examples with using this strategy, is useful in creating student engagement, aiding in motivating students and to increase participation in classroom activities.

Problem solving allows also for students to build their thinking and reasoning skills.

Increase their skills in analysing and applying their current knowledge to find a solution to a set problem.



(Bransford 1986, p.67)

Limitations
This strategy may prove useful in some aspects of learning, but a study by Sweller ( Sweller, 1990, p.45) States that:

Problem solving is a strategy that is mainly focused on domain specific knowledge, not allowing for students to explore problem solving in different aspects.

His research also states that students who require teacher support find this strategy difficult to participate in as they require additional resources, which defeat the purpose of using problem solving.
To cater for the diversity of the classroom, students need to feel secure and comfortable in the learning environment. To achieve this it is necessary to create a sense of flexibility in the way that Role- Play can be performed.

Multiple modes of presenting such as video recording allows for students to participate in the activities in a safe method allowing them to take risks.



Modifications
Small Group Work
Why Use This Strategy?
Benefits of Small Group Work as a Strategy:
Small Group Work as a Strategy encourages students to develop their social skills while engaging them in academic content.
.
Concrete evidence of the benefits of using this strategy comes from research by Cohen (1994, p.78) that ” Small Group work is an effective technique for achieving certain kinds of intellectual, conceptual and social learning for creating problem solving and language proficiency.”

In support of this research, Soloway ( Blumenfield, Krajcik & Soloway 2010, p.27) “Small Group Work can be seen as an effective learning strategy as it allows for student attitudes towards school, foster achievement, and to promote interpersonal and intergroup relations.”


Limitations:
The strategy can be least effective if a whole class approach could be used.

If learners haven’t gained a sufficient amount of background information, students may find it hard to learn independently in their groups.

a students or students may take upon themselves to speak out of turn. This creates dominance in the group, allowing an unfair advantage for them to have their opinions heard and silent others





(Fetherston, 2006,p.45)

Modifications
Direct Instruction
Why Use This Strategy?
Limitations
Modifications
Discussion
Why Use This Strategy?
Limitations:
If students are ill prepared to participate in discussion, participation in the discussion will not be at a substantial level thus, it may become stale or directionless.


(Brookfield, 1990 p.97) States that:
Some students may be reluctant to participate in the activities due to the issue of dominant students found within the group structure. This can make students feel inferior within the group and participation may become less involved in future.
Modifications
Inquiry Based- Research
Why Use This Strategy?
Limitations
Modifications
In Summary
Thank you for viewing this beginners guide on the 6 strategies that were critiqued and reflected on in this presentation. Hopefully this presentation has given you an insight and has sparked some ideas on how UDL principles can be used and how, to these strategies can be adopted into your own classroom.
Any Questions?
References
Blumenfeld, P. C., Marx, R. W., Soloway, E., & Krajcik, J. (1996).
Learning with peers: From small group cooperation to collaborative communities
. Educational Researcher, 25(8), 37. doi:10.2307/1176492

Bransford, J., Sherwood, R., Vye, N., & Rieser, J. (1986). Teaching thinking and problem solving: Research foundations. American Psych

Bonawitz, E., Shafto,P., Hyowen, G., Goodman, N., Spelke, E. & Schultz, . (2011).
The Double- edged Sword of Pedagogy: Instruction Limits Spontaneous Exploration and Discovery. Cognition
, 120 (3), 322- 330

Brookfield,.S ( 1990) The Skillful Teacher:On technique, trust and responsiveness in the classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Cohen, E. G. (1994). D
esigning groupwork: Strategies for the heterogeneous classroom
. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.

Freiberg, H. J., & Driscoll, A. (1996). Universal Teaching Strategies. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Heckman,P.E., Confer, C.B. & Hakim, D.C. (1994)
Planting Seeds: Understandings Through Investigational Leadership
, 51 (5), 36-39

Killen, R. (2013).
Effective teaching strategies: Lessons from research and practice
. South Melbourne, Vic: Cengage Learning Australia.

Kirschner, P.A., Sweller, J. & Clark, R.E ( 2006).
Why Minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An Analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem - based, experiential, and inquiry- based teaching. Educational Psychologist
, 41 (2), 75-86

Kuhlthau, C., Mainotes, L. & Caspari, A. (2007).
Guided Inquiry: Learning in the Classroom
. Westport, CT: Libraries Unlimited

National Center on Universal Design for Learning, at CAST (2012). UDL Guidelines V 2.0. Retrieved May 9, 2014, from http://www.udlcenter.org/aboutudl/udlguidelines

Pace, D. (2011).
Best practice: The use of explicit instruction and culturally responsive teaching. Insights on Learning Disabilities
: From Prevailing Theories to Validated Practices,8(2), 5.

Sweller, J. (1990).
On the limited evidence for the effectiveness of teaching general problem-solving strategies.
Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 21(5), 411-415.


Turner-Bisset, R. (2012). C
reative teaching: History in the Primary Classroom
. Hoboken: Routledge



A Discussion is a well organised group interaction where students are exchanging ideas and viewpoints on a subject or topic. During this session students are expressing, reflecting and evaluating the subject knowledge that students have experienced.

The strategy can be used in conjunction with other teaching strategies such as
Small Group Work and Role – Play
to enrich and enhance the content being taught.




An example of what Direct Instruction may look like in a classroom setting.
Small group work is an effective strategy where students are placed into small groups of 2 or more students.

In this strategy students are working in a group with indirect instruction from the teacher. This strategy comes hand in hand with
the Discussion Teaching Strategy ( See Discussion)
, as in small groups students are encouraged to discuss information and key concepts to be explored further by the students.

Students participating in this strategy are given opportunities in being ale to engage with the content being taught more effectively than using a strategy such as
Direct Instruction ( See Direct Instruction Strategy)



To cater for the diversity of the classroom, students need to feel secure and comfortable in the learning environment. To achieve this it is necessary to create a sense of flexibility in the way that Role- Play can be performed.

Multiple modes of presenting such as video recording allows for students to participate in the activities in a safe method allowing them to take risks.
In contradiction to the research by Bisset and Turner, Friedberg ( As cited by Driscoll & Friedberg, 1996, p.50) states
“the main limitation of any interactive strategy is time for planning of any activities that are related to role- play.”

In preparation for using this strategy a substantial amount of background knowledge is needed and other strategies may be more efficient in the delivering of the content such as
direct instruction
.
Direct Instruction is also known as explicit instruction is a strategy in which generally used as a whole class approach. The approach is teacher centered where academic content is provided through a structured and formal format.

The teacher of the class organizes all of the intended learning goals of the lesson and outlines the intended outcomes of the students.

Students in this strategy gain the crucial foundational knowledge that they require for them to participate in student centered learning activities.

The strategy is an effective way to teach low- achieving students as it allows for a direct delivery of important content to be processed on a whole class scale.

The outcome of learning is depends jointly on what information is presented and how the information can be presented as the teacher leads, but with great emphasis on the ways that students actively construct and process knowledge.


( Pace, 2011, p.6)

The strategy can be seen as ineffective if students are highly motivated and will want to learn independently.

The strategy is less effective if there are gaps in students’ background knowledge and learning, which may cause problems for EAL/D students as there is Limited content adaptation and interpretation for students which may cause issues in their ability to process information.

Bonawitz ( et al., 2011) States that Direct Instruction
Limits students to work independently impinging on students ability to develop autonomy.
Discussion allows for students’ to begin asking questions about the content being taught.

Engages them in the lesson content.

Discussion opens up opportunities for students to have their opinions heard, as well as to become a valued member of a topic’s discussion.




(Killen, 2013, p.165)
To improve time management in groups, it could beneficial for the groups to be given assigned roles, so that each student feels as though their contributions are valued within the social environment of group work.

To cater for the students who are either EAL/D within the classroom should be put into groups together with other students to build their social and their English speaking skills, to further their efforts and engagement in future group endeavours
.
To improve time management in groups, it could beneficial for the groups to be given assigned roles, so that each student feels as though their contributions are valued within the social environment of group work.

To cater for the students who are either EAL/D within the classroom should be put into groups together with other students to build their social and their English speaking skills, to further their efforts and engagement in future group endeavours.
Students solve problems through the use of questioning to find solutions to a set problem.

When this teaching strategy is used, the emphasis must be on the subject matter that is being taught rather than simply teaching the process of problem solving.

This strategy can be used in conjunction with others including
Small Group Work
and
Discussion.
By providing students with additional resources, students are able to devise solutions more effectively and in depth on the topic. This contradicts the research highlighted by Sweller, in the limitations of the strategy.

At the beginning of lesson involving problem solving, an interesting hook may prove to be an effective way for motivating the students. Using relevant real life situations in problem solving aids in engaging students in the content.




Direct Instruction
Discussion
Small Group Work
Problem Solving
Role Play
Inquiry Based Research
Inquiry Based Research is a strategy that is used throughout discovery base learning. Students in this strategy are learning based off research which they find from sources such as texts, encyclopedias and digital medias.

Inquiry Based Learning follows a distinct structure to model and scaffold student learning.

Stages of the Inquiry Based Approach
1. Activate Background Knowledge

2. Formulate Questions

3.Investigate

4. Record Findings

5.Check Availability of Sources

6. Create

7. Reflect
Structured Inquiry can give learners experience at working in the way that professionals do.

Heckman, Confer & Hakim (1995, p.36) state another benefit of Inquiry Based - Research is that:
Students are able to construct their own theories of the world and their observations and adjusting them accordingly .

Structured Inquiry allows for students to not simply absorb information but, to also integrate these pieces of information that they have learnt to 'connect their world with the curriculum.


Inquiry encourages students to create and investigate questions, to self drive their learning relying less on teacher instruction.






(
Kuhlthau, Mainotes & Caspari, 2007, p.34)

Just like many of the strategies which have been critiqued in this presentation, the use of extra resources are important in catering EAL/D learners and for students with learning difficulties.

To modify this strategy for the students in the class, multiple modes of displaying information is required. this can be achieved by using video, traditional printed texts as well as E-book versions of the text.

Using a website creating software is useful as it allows for students to not only research information, but to find relevant information that will be useful for their research questions, keeping them on track into finding answers for their inquiry questions.
Students may find this strategy to engage in if background knowledge isn't at a sound level.

This is lack of background knowledge is a prominent limitation that can be seen across a few teaching strategies such as
Role- Play, Discussion
and
Small Group Work Strategies.

Students need to know how to work in small group situations.

Highlighted by Kischmer, Sweller & Clark (2006)
When Inquiry places students in an environment that they find highly complex, the heavy work load on their memory may be detrimental to their learning.
Bibliography
(Guerrilla Educators, 2010)
An example of where Inquiry Based Learning can be used in the Science Key Learning Area.
Conceptua Maths ( 2013).Rich Classroom Discussions in Math [ YouTube] retrieved from
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=n0_xDd5UyAU

Guerrilla Educators (2010). Best Practices: 2nd Grad Inquiry Based Science [ YouTube]. Retrieved from:
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=b133AGFclCY

LIS Primary Wiki (n.d). Grade 5 ESL Classroom Language Role - Plays [ YouTube] retrieved from
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPMY2iK7rXg

Old Cathode Rey ( 2011). Direct Instruction - An Educational Strategy [ YouTube] retrieved from
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=3cwODCQ9BnU

Pearson Schools (n.d) Bug Club - Small Group Work [ YouTube] retrieved from
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7MqI5YAS5c
(Old Cathode Rey, 2011)
(LIS Primary WIKI, n.d)

(Conceptua Math, 2013)
An example of a whole classroom Discussion
An example of where Small Group Work can be Used
(Pearson Schools, 2011)
Full transcript