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Turkish Foreign Policy
Transcript of Turkish Foreign Policy
From Turkish Perspective
Enlargement of NATO
From Turkish Perspective
Transition of NATO and New Strategies
1993 - 1996
Turkish Foreign Policy
Turkey - NATO Relations
Turkey - EU Relations
Collapse of USSR in 1991 created new international world order.
As a victorious alliance of the Cold War, instead of repeal, NATO maintained its existence with an considerable expansion.
Decisions of London and Rome Summits effected on NATO's structural and functional transition.
Member States of NATO would not been under threat of Eastern Block no longer.
However, they were taking serious risks that comes from many directions.
It's admitted that NATO, UN, PfP and OSCE could complete each other.
In Cold War Period
Post-Cold War Period
New vs. Old
NATO Ministerial Meetings in Berlin
Turkey had been worrying about repeal of NATO and loosing ties with USA.
Turkey was anticipating a new NATO that leaded by USA because their interests were matching.
In early 90's..
Turkey supported integration on security of European states. OSCE, NATO, EU and European and Council of Europe should cooperate with each other and also with Turkey about regional issues.
USA should protect its connections with EU via NATO.
EU should not have their own security organization.
Disarmament policies were favorable
In Cold War Period >> east-west direction
After Cold War Period >> north-south direction
Turkey was not satisfied from NATO's enlargement because;
Privileges of Turkey were decreased
Potential member states were not able to contribute to Turkey's security.
Attention of USA and other member states would front to new potential members and new regions in.
Aids were decreased for Turkey
NATO's expansion to Romania and Slovenia
In 90's, Features of Turkey-EU Relations:
Acceleration of European Integration Process
Termination of The Cold War
In order to provide an integrated market and ideology in continent, former members of Warsaw Pact were accepted in European Communities.
With the Maastricht Treaty European Communities took its final name 'European Union'.
Is Turkey European, or not?
Issues like fight against terrorism, conflicts with Greece, Cyprus, economical-political instability etc. became more important in Turkey and EU relations.
Turkey >> full membership EU >> only customs union
Copenhagen Summit (June 1993) indicated that Turkey-EU Relations would be in Customs Union level.
Greece that uses Cyprus problem and full EU membership application Of Southern Cyprus constituted an obstacle in front of the Turkey-EU Relations.
The free movement agreement that would come after the full membership of Turkey, especially Germany restrain many European countries from step in this direction.
Customs Union Agreement would contribute to rebuild a dialog in political relations between Turkey and EU.
With the economical integration, Turkey supposed to integrate in political area and substructural consolidation.
TURKEY AND MIDDLE EAST
Cyprus historically has been the playground of the Great Powers because of geopolitical and geostrategic position .
The island is a military base because of proximity to the Middle East.
If we think Mahan’s Sea Power Theory; who wants to be a World Imparotore, state must have maritime trade routes.
This theory emphasizes the importance of Cyprus.
If we look at the ısland’s importance for Turkey;
-Cyprus can close all the doors that opened to the Mediterranean.
-It provide the Gulf of Iskenderun and Mersin Port security.
If the another state sovereign to the Island, Anatolia’s southern part could endanger.
Due to international developments, Turkey involved Middle East issues.
After the collapse of the USSR and end of the Cold War, US focused on Middle East;
US wants to control the region’s rich oil resources and providing the flow to West.
Gulf crisis damaged the Ozal’s Middle East policy and also it caused negative developments in the long term.
-First of all, The Kurdish problem reach to level of international.
-Power gap helped to PKK’s empowerment in Northern Iraq.
-Turkey has lost billions of dollars.
1993: Kurdish problem became milestone to Turkey
After the death of President Ozal, Demirel became president and also Ciller became Prime Minister.
They determined principle of armed solution to PKK problem.
Chief of Staff explained ‘low intensity war’ in Turkey’s southeast area.
The final straw was that collective defense agreement between Greece and Syria. Greece could use Syria airspace with this agreement.
During this period, Turkey was disturbed to positive talks between Syria and Israel.
Turkey adopted a strict policy to PKK supporter countries and also during this period Turkey accelerated the process rapprochment with Israel.
Syria decided to moving water problem in international platform.
Syria also put on the agenda of the Arab counties. 8 Arab countries sent note to Turkey at December 1995.
Thanks For Listening
In this period Syria Prime Minister did not attend the meeting about sharing of the Euphrates.
However this problem did not prevent a new signing of a new security protocal and the first time Syria has described the PKK as a terrorist organization.
After that, meeting happened at 5 February 1994. Syria explained that would not allow the PKK activities in own territory. Afterwards, Syria demanded to bilateral talk about water issue from Turkey.
However Turkey rejected Syria’s demands. Because Turkey wanted to suitable environment to solve terrorist problem and, Syria did not meet requirements.