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2--Cell Processes and Energy

Cell Processes and Energy
by

Lisa OConnor

on 3 October 2016

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Transcript of 2--Cell Processes and Energy

Chapter 2
Cell Processes and Energy
I.Sources of Energy
a.Photo (light) Synthesis (putting together)—nearly all living things obtain energy indirectly or directly from photosynthesis
b.Ex. Lion—indirectly, Plant—directly
c.Autotroph—makes own food
d.Heterotroph—eats other organisms
Section One: Photosynthesis
1. Choloroplasts—capture sun’s energy—chlorophyll
2. Use light energy to make food
Steps in Photosynthesis:
1.Sunlight strikes leaf
2.Chlorophyll captures light energy
3.Roots take in water
4.Stomata takes in CO2
5.Chemically react to produce glucose and oxygen
Equation:
6 CO2 + 6 H2O --- C6H12O6 +6 O2
(yields light energy)
I.Respiration—process which cells obtain energy from glucose
a.Opposite of photosynthesis
b.Starts in cytoplasm—glucose broken down
c.Ends in mitochondria—uses oxygen
Section 2: Respiration
d. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 ---- 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + ATP (energy)
II.Fermentation
a. no oxygen still provides energy for cells
b.Alcoholic—ex. Yeast breaks down sugars
c.Lactic Acid—makes muscles sore/weak—the body when exercising uses more oxygen than it has
A.DNA Replication
a.Makes sure each cell has same genetic info
b.DNA unwinds and unzips and pairs break apart to replicate
c.Looks like a twisted ladder
d.Deoxyribose sides of ladder, one phosphate between each step
i. 1 pair of nitrogen bases make up each step
1.Adenine—thymine
2.Cytosine—guanine
Section 3: Cell Division

III. Mitosis—divide to 2 nuclei

a.Prophase—chromosomes form, nuclear membranes leave

b.Metaphase—chromosomes line up in the middle

c.Anaphase—chromatids pull apart-opposite ends

d.Telophase—2 nuclei reform

e.Cytokinesis—cell membrane forms around each, 1 nucleus in each cell, identical chromosome sets
Cell Cycle: cell grows, prepares for division, divides into two daughter cells
http://cellsalive.com/mitosis.htm
100 different types
a.Disease where cells grow and divide uncontrollably—damages
b.Damage in DNA chromosomes—mutation
c.Causes cells to function abnormally
d.Cancer begins when mutations disrupt normal cell cycle—causes cells to divide uncontrollably
e.Tumor mass of abnormal cells
Cancer
Treat Cancer
a. Surgery,
b. Radiation—high energy waves destroy tumors
c. Chemotherapy—drugs kill cancer cells, problem is also hurt white blood cells
http://earthguide.ucsd.edu/earthguide/diagrams/photosynthesis/photosynthesis.html
Discovery video--cancer/normal cells
Glucose + Oxygen yields Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
Cancer Research Project
Answer Questions
CREATE MITOSIS MODELS WITH PARTNER!!!!
I.Interphase—cell grows, DNA replication
Full transcript