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The Underground Railroad and Abolitionist Movement
Transcript of The Underground Railroad and Abolitionist Movement
Interviewing: Frederick Douglass
Today I have the opportunity of interviewing, the one, the only, Fredrick Douglass. I will be asking Mr. Douglass eight questions about his life and what he did for the abolitionist movement.
Interviewer: Mr. Douglass my first question for you is when and where were you born?
Frederick: I was born in February of 1817 on the eastern shore of Maryland. I don’t know exactly when I was born because during my time slaves didn’t keep track of birthdays very often.
Interviewer: Oh, I’m so sorry to hear that Mr. Douglass. I can’t imagine not knowing the date of my birth. My next question is who were your parents, and did you have any siblings?
Frederick: My mom’s name was Harriet Bailey, and I never knew or saw my father. I also had three older siblings, a brother, Perry, and two sisters, Sara and Elise.
Interviewer: Wow, the youngest of three. I wonder how that must have been on you as a child. Speaking of child, tell me, how was your childhood?
Frederick: Since I was a slave, I didn’t have much of a childhood. I was separated from my mother when I was really young, and I was forced to work hard and I suffered cruel treatment while working for my master, Captain Aaron Anthony.
Interviewer: That is terrible! Some of the best things that have happened to me occurred during my childhood. If those memories were to be taken from me, it would be awful. My next question for you is how did you learn to read and write?
Frederick: For a little while I was sent to live with the Auld’s family. There Mrs. Auld taught me the ABC’s until Mr. Auld made her stop. One day after playing with some friends I found a Webster Dictionary on my way home. I hid it from the Auld’s. When I was a teenager I shined shoes and worked on Mr. Auld’s shipyard. I occasionally got money from doing these things. I would then use this money to buy books so I could expand my knowledge.
Interviewer: That is just fascinating for you to go through all that trouble just to get an education. Usually kids nowadays try to get out of going to school to get an education. The next thing I would like to know is when did you start delivering speeches?
Frederick: When I was trying to make a living doing manual labor, I became involved in the abolitionist movement. In 1841, I delivered a speech about my experience as a slave at an abolitionist meeting in Nantucket, Massachusetts. The Massachusetts Antislavery Society was so impressed by my speech they hired me to give lectures.
Interviewer: That is pretty cool. The next thing I would like to ask you is, how would you describe your speeches?
Frederick: Many people have told me my speeches are forceful and inspiring. Some Harvard students who heard my speeches persuaded me to write an autobiography. So I wrote The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, which was published in 1845.
Interviewer: I have to say you have lived an amazing life Mr. Douglass. Did you ever receive any rewards for your accomplishments?
Frederick: I didn’t receive any awards, but there are rewards are named after me. Two awards can be given to individuals who have survived a form of slavery and are now using their lives in freedom to help others.
Interviewer: Truly incredible. For my last and final question what else are you known for besides your speeches and novels?
Frederick: I am also known for fighting for women’s rights, because I believe everyone should be treaty equally.
Interviewer: Thank you Mr. Frederick Douglass for telling us a little about yourself. It was a pleasure being able to interview you.
Frederick: No problem, thanks for having me. I love helping the world become a better place for all people. Biographical Interview This is a map of routes on the railroad. The Underground Railroad was a secret network organized by people to help men, women, and children escape from slavery to freedom. It began in 1780, and operated long before the civil war ended slavery. The Underground railroad provided hiding places, food, and transportation. It also provided safe routes . Most of these routes ended in northern states, and later Canada. The name for the railroad is unknown, but generally things underground are invisible. The Underground Railroad Background There were many people involved in work on the underground railroad. People who helped slaves were called conductors.The leaders of the railroad were called engineers. The engineers would help provide food, shelter, jobs, and most importantly hide the slaves.Many men and women of both races were involved in work on the railroad. Quakers and abolitionists worked on the railroad, and among these was Harriet Tubman,Levi coffin and many others. People on the Railroad Harriet Tubman was born in 1820 in Maryland to slave parents. Harriet was hired out to many masters who were abusive and cruel to her. On one of these occasions she hit her head and revived visions for the rest of her life. Tubman than escaped after her master died via the underground railroad. Harriet settled in Pennsylvania an after hearing that her children would be sold she started trips to the south. She is known as the Black Moses for her 19 trips rescuing slaves and work on the railroad. She was a living symbol to african american resistance to slavery. Biography of Harriet Tubman There were many reasons for the underground railroad, but it was mostly for people who didn't believe slavery was right and that slaves were treated very cruelly. Slaves were beaten, very unhappy, tortured, and weren't given the amount of food and water that they needed. The underground railroad provided them with these things. Reasons for the Creation of the Underground Railroad The railroad brought over 30,000 slaves to freedom but since of its secrecy not all of the places have been discovered. since the railroad was illegal it would have been dangerous to talk about it. it is know about because people wrote books or kept diaries.the underground railroad is open to visitation.tunnels and trap doors have lead to some discoveries. there are also books and diaries that have been found. old newspapers and court records were found as well. The Railroad Today Abolitionist were a main part of the railroad. since the movement was about not having slaves this was a big part of why the railroad was created. they hid slaves in there homes,churches,schools, and barns.they believed slavery was wrong so they risked there lives for what the believed in. Abolitionists and The Underground Railroad Video This is a video about the underground railroad.
William Lloyd Garrison
In the very first issue of his anti-slavery newspaper, the Liberator, William Lloyd Garrison stated, "I do not wish to think, or speak, or write, with moderation. . . . I am in earnest -- I will not equivocate -- I will not excuse -- I will not retreat a single inch -- AND I WILL BE HEARD." And Garrison was heard. For more than three decades, from the first issue of his weekly paper in 1831, until after the end of the Civil War in 1865 when the last issue was published, Garrison spoke out eloquently and passionately against slavery and for the rights of America's black inhabitants.
Sojourner Truth was one of the most powerful advocates the abolitionist and women's movements ever had. Tall with a commanding presence about her, she worked tirelessly for both the end of slavery and the beginning of new rights for women.
Harriet Beecher Stowe
The Stowes and the Beecher family were part of the burgeoning movement to abolish slavery. Harriet Beecher Stowe was an American abolitionist and novelist who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin, one of the most influential books in American history.
Born of a slave father and a free mother, Walker grew up free, obtained an education, and traveled throughout the country, settling in Boston. There he became involved in the abolition movement and was a frequent contributor to Freedom’s Journal, an antislavery weekly. His pamphlet Appeal…to the Colored Citizens of the World…, urged slaves to fight for their freedom, and was one of the most radical documents of the anti-slavery movement.
Abolitionist leader Frederick Douglass was born into slavery in Talbot County, Maryland. He became one of the most famous intellectuals of his time, advising presidents and lecturing to thousands on a range of causes, including women’s rights and Irish home rule. Among Douglass’ writings are several autobiographies eloquently describing his experiences in slavery and his life after the Civil War. Important People of the Abolitionist Movement
The abolition of slavery began in 1688 when German and Dutch Quakers published a pamphlet denouncing the practice.
The National Negro Convention is held in Philadelphia. The Convention brings together forty freed African-Americans. Its aim is to protect the rights of freed African-Americans in the United States.
William Lloyd Garrison publishes The Liberator, one of the most widely read antislavery publications. The Nat Turner Rebellion takes places in Southampton County Virginia.
The Boston Female Anti-Slavery Society is formed. Garrison establishes the American Antislavery Society in Philadelphia. Within five years, the organization has more than 1300 chapters and an estimated 250,000 members.
Great Britain abolishes slavery in its colonies.
Women organize societies such as the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society. Women such as Lucretia Mott, Grace Bustill Douglass are members. Antislavery petitions flood the offices of congressman. These petitions are part of a campaign launched by abolitionists.
Various abolitionist organizations rally together and sue in the Commonwealth v. Aves case in which a slave traveled to Boston with her mistress from New Orleans.
Presbyterian minister and abolitionist Elijah Parish Lovejoy establishes the antislavery publication, Alton Observer. The Vigilance Committee is established by abolitionist and businessman Robert Purvis to help runaway slaves. The Antislavery Convention of American Women gathers for the first time. This interracial association was comprised of various women's antislavery groups.
Angelina Grimke addresses the Massachusetts legislature concerning not only the abolition movement, but also the rights of women. Philadelphia Hall is burned by an anti-abolitionist mob.
The Liberty Party is formed by abolitionists to use political action to fight against slavery. Abolitionist Lewis Tappan forms the Friend of Amistad Africans Committee to fight for the rights of Africans involved in the Amistad case. Important Abolitionist Movement Events The goal of the abolitionist movement was the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of racial discrimination and segregation. Advocating for immediate emancipation distinguished abolitionists from more moderate anti-slavery advocates who argued for gradual emancipation, and from free-soil activists who sought to restrict slavery to existing areas and prevent its spread further west. Radical abolitionism was partly fueled by the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening, which prompted many people to advocate for emancipation on religious grounds. Abolitionist ideas became increasingly prominent in Northern churches and politics beginning in the 1830s, which contributed to the regional animosity between North and South leading up to the Civil War. By: Noelle Pool and Jasmine Evans The End The Abolitionist Movement