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Pre-exam Literature Paper One Prep

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Paul Hanson

on 11 November 2018

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Transcript of Pre-exam Literature Paper One Prep

Pre-exam Literature Paper One Prep
Tomorrow Morning
Remember:
to get plenty of sleep tonight
to eat a hearty breakfast
not to be late to school
to be in the canteen at 8.30 (get a second breakfast)
to bring a handful of black pens
The AOs
AO1: ideas, quotations and meaning.
AO2: methods and effects.
AO3: contextual factors.
AO4: SPaG (Macbeth only).
The Chief Examiner's Guidance: AO1
Underline the question focus and then answer the question!
Plan your answer!
Explore the text's big ideas.
References can mean: quotations, characters, key moments, settings, paraphrasing.
Don't use long quotations; certainly don't copy large chucks out!
Remember that understanding meaning is the most important element of AO1.
Top Tips for Macbeth
Answer the question!
How does this extract link to the rest of the play? What's the big picture? Focus on the writer's ideas.
Focus on the structure and dramatic impact of Shakespeare's choices, rather than just naming unhelpful language features.
Focus on how the play builds towards its tragic end.
As with the language exam, it is ideas and understanding that is more important than naming methods.
Try not to focus on using nouns, adjectives, verbs because they don't lead to thoughtful analysis.
Focus on characterisation, relationships, dramatic mood, contrast, motifs, imagery, metaphor etc, structure and so on.
Link contextual ideas to explicit ideas and quotations; don't just 'bolt' them on.
Don't fret about getting long quotations exactly right; just remember the key words.
If you can't remember quotations refer to what details you can; it'll still get marks.
Top Tips for A Christmas Carol
Answer the question!
How does this extract link to the rest of the short story (novella)?
Focus on the structure and impact of Dicken's choices, rather than just naming unhelpful language features.
Focus on how the story builds up to Scrooge's redemption.
As with the language exam, it is ideas and understanding that is more important than naming methods.
Try not to focus on using nouns, adjectives, verbs because they don't lead to thoughtful analysis.
Focus on narrative voice, characterisation, setting, mood, speech, structure, listing, motifs etc.
Link contextual ideas to explicit ideas and quotations; don't just 'bolt' them on.
Don't focus on Dickens' childhood; focus on the inequality of Victorian England and Dickens' own views about this.
Don't fret about getting long quotations exactly right; just remember the key words.
If you can't remember quotations refer to what details you can; it'll still get marks.
Themes in Macbeth
Ambition (last year's topic!)
: 'Hie thee hither, that I may pour my spirits in thine ear and chastise with the valor of my tongue all that impedes thee from the golden round.' (LM)

Nature vs unnatural thoughts and acts
: 'Fair is foul and foul is fair, hover through the fog and filthy air'. (The Witches)

Fate vs free-will
'For brave Macbeth--well he deserves that name-- disdaining fortune, with his brandish'd steel, which smoked with bloody execution'. (Captain)

Masculinity and femininity:
'When you durst do it, then you were a man.' (LM)
'Yet do I fear thy nature; It is too full o' th' milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way' (LM)

Kingship vs tyranny
:
'Duncan hath been so meek in his faculties' (Macbeth)
'This tyrant, whose sole name blisters our tongues, was once thought honest.' (Malcolm)

Betrayal and retribution (justice and revenge)
:
'He's here in double trust; first, as I am his kinsman and his subject... then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, not bear the knife myself.' (Macbeth)
'I have no words: my voice is in my sword: thou bloodier villain than terms can give thee out!' (Macduff)

Heroism vs cowardice
:
'Brave Macbeth- well he deserves that name!' (Captain)
'When you durst do it, then you were a man.' (LM)

Ruthlessness vs compassion
:
'Yet do I fear thy nature; It is too full o' th' milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way' (LM)
'I would, while it was smiling in my face, have plucked my nipple from his boneless gums and dashed the brains out, had I so sworn as you have done to this.'
Motifs and Symbols
Hallucinations
: 'Is this a dagger I see before me..'?' (Macbeth)

Violence
: 'unseamed him from the nave to th' chops and fixed his head upon our battlements.' (The Captain)

Prophesy
: 'All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter!' (The Witches)

Deceptive appearances
: 'Look like th'innocent flower'. (Macbeth)

Blood
: 'Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood clean from my hand?' (Macbeth)

Light and dark
: 'Angels are bright still, though the brightest fell.' (Malcolm)

The weather
: 'When shall we three meet again, in thunder, lightning or in rain?' (The Witches)

Sleep
: 'Methought I heard a voice cry “Sleep no more! Macbeth doth Murder sleep”—the innocent sleep'. (Macbeth)

The number three
(the unholy trinity): 'Thrice to thine and thrice to mine and thrice again, to make up nine. Peace! The charm’s wound up.' (The Witches)
Planning
Don't just jump straight in and write. Make a brief plan, so that you know you're covering everything.
Form
'Macbeth' is a
play
with a live
audience
.
'A Christmas Carol' is a
novella
with a
reader
in mind.
The writers' choice of methods and effects are therefore different.
Unnatural Acts
AO3:
Macbeth's has just killed Duncan and he knows his betrayal is an unforgivable sin against the king and God, and audiences would have been aware of this.
The witches: 'Fair is four and foul is fair'
Lady Macbeth: 'unsex me here...'
Macbeth: 'But wherefore could not I pronounce “Amen”?'
AO1: what seems good will be bad and vise versa.
AO3: women were supposed to be compassionate and submissive. LM upsets that natural order and must therefore be punished. Strong links here to Eve in the Bible.
AO2: the use of the imperative establishes LM's hamartia and foreshadows her downfall.
AO1: Macbeth feels out of God's grace. He has upset the natural order and now feels lost.
AO2: the rhetorical question conveys Macbeth's self-doubt to the audience. This would be a moment of significant dramatic tension and it's likely that the audience would see Macbeth as a character damned in God's eyes.
AO1: Lady Macbeth demands that spirits undo nature and give her the manly qualities, such as cruelty.
AO3: belief in unnatural influences, like witches, was very common.
AO2: this paradox foreshadows Macbeth's betrayal of Duncan; LM's unwomanly actions; lots more. Sets the supernatural dramatic mood.
Allegory and Symbols
'A Christmas Carol'
: the whole story is an Christian allegory about the importance of social responsibility.

Characters:
Scrooge
symbolises the capacity for change and redemption.
Marley's ghost
symbolises greed and remorse.
Ghost of Christmas Past
symbolises memory and facing up to our pasts.
Ghost of Christmas Present
symbolises the bounty and generosity of Christmas.
Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come
symbolises the uncertainty of the future.
Tiny Tim
symbolises vulnerable children living and dying in poverty.
Bob Cratchit
symbolises the oppressed hard working poor.
'
The boy is Ignorance
' represents the deliberate lack of social responsibility of the rich.
'This girl is Want
' represents those in extreme poverty who want for basic necessities.



Themes in A Christmas Carol
Redemption
:
[To the portly gentleman] '"whispering in his ear... "Not a farthing less. A great many back-payments are included in it, I assure you."'
'Scrooge was better than his word. He did it all, and infinitely more; and to Tiny Tim, who did not die, he was a second father.'
Greed
:
'Oh! But he was a tight-fisted hand at the grind- stone, Scrooge! a squeezing, wrenching, grasping, scraping, clutching, covetous, old sinner! '
'"I wear the chain I forged in life," replied the Ghost. "I made it link by link, and yard by yard; I girded it on of my own free will, and of my own free will I wore it.'
Charity
: '"Mankind was my business. The common welfare was my business; charity, mercy, forbearance, and benevolence, were, all, my business.'
Social injustice
(poverty etc):
'"If they would rather die," said Scrooge, "they had better do it, and decrease the surplus population.'
'This boy is Ignorance. This girl is Want. Beware them both, and all of their degree; but most of all beware this boy, for on his brow I see that written which is Doom'.
Forgiveness and compass
ion:
[When Mrs Cratchitt won't toast Scrooge] '"My'dear," was Bob's mild answer, "Christmas Day."'
'one old ghost, in a white waistcoat, with a monstrous iron safe attached to its ankle... cried piteously at being unable to assist a wretched woman with an infant'.
Family
:
[Fred] '"I want nothing from you; I ask nothing of you; why cannot we be friends?"'
'all the Cratchit family drew round the hearth, in what Bob Cratchit called a circle'
Supernatural
:
'It was a strange figure -- like a child: yet not so like a child as like an old man, viewed through some supernatural medium'
'It was shrouded in a deep black garment, which concealed its head, its face, its form, and left nothing of it visible save one outstretched hand.'
Christmas
:
"If I could work my will," said Scrooge indignantly, "every idiot who goes about with 'Merry Christmas' on his lips should be boiled with his own pudding, and buried with a stake of holly through his heart.'
'The poulterers' shops were still half open, and the fruiterers' were radiant in their glory. There were great, round, pot-bellied baskets of chestnuts, shaped like the waistcoats of jolly old gentlemen, lolling at the doors'.
Shakespeare presents Lady Macbeth as attacking Macbeth's masculinity:

'When you durst do it then you were a man'.
Here,
Lady Macbeth attempts to shame Macbeth into killing King Duncan by questioning his manhood
. By using the
verb
'durst'
,
Lady Macbeth is challenging Macbeth to act heroically.
Women never bossed their husbands about in Shakespeare's time.
Act One Scene Seven presents the audience with a moment of intense dramatic tension because Shakespeare creates conflict as
Lady Macbeth attacks Macbeth's masculinity
moments after he has won a great victory and great rewards: 'When you durst do it then you were a man'. Here, Lady Macbeth, in her hubris, attempts to shame Macbeth into killing King Duncan by questioning his
manhood
. By using the the past tense ('durst' and 'were') Shakespeare creates a tense tone, as Lady Macbeth is challenging Macbeth to 'dare' to act heroically.
This stings Macbeth's pride and allows Lady Macbeth to take the upper hand, manipulating Macbeth to her will
. The audience would, I believe, respond negatively to the two of them for failing to live up to their gender stereotypes for the time period, thereby increasing the unnaturalness of the scene, which is building up to the murder of Kind Duncan. Shakespeare is being really clever here because this contrasts with Macbeth's presentation in Act One Scene Two, when two similes are used to compare him to an 'eagle' and a 'lion'. These two animals are at the top of the food chain and are, therefore, fierce predators. Historically,
being an effective fighter is regarded as a very masculine quality
and all classical heroes were great warriors; so, when Lady Macbeth attacks masculinity, she is attacking his self-image as a great warrior and the hero of his own story. And yet, there is something even more subtle happening here too, as 'lions' and 'eagles' are both majestic and kingly animals, perhaps suggesting Macbeth is kingly too. And yet, these creatures are just that creatures, animals and so, perhaps Shakespeare is suggesting that Macbeth is not kingly, in fact,
not even a man
, just as Lady Macbeth suggests: what appears 'fair' is actually 'foul' just as The Witches warned the audience in Act One Scene One. This helps to set up Macbeth's hamartia: his hubris at believing he has the right to be king is a flaw for which he must be punished and the way it is presented makes sure the audience wants the story to end in tragedy for him. Moreover, it is King James would have responded extremely favourably to this idea, as it adds credibility to the notion that regicide is an unnatural act.

Masculinity Answer: Weak
Strengths:
Focuses on the question (AO1)
Well-selected quotation and key word (AO1/AO2)
Analysis of meaning (AO1)
Shakespeare's methods (AO2)
Context (AO3)
Weaknesses:
It doesn't focus on the big ideas (AO1)
No cross-referenced quotations (AO1/AO2)
No development (AO1)
No dramatic 'effects' of methods (AO2)
Sweeping statement about context (AO3)
Masculinity Answer: Strong
Focus is guided by the question (AO1)
Act One Scene Seven presents the audience with a moment of intense dramatic tension because Shakespeare creates conflict as Lady Macbeth attacks Macbeth's masculinity moments after he has won a great victory and great rewards:
'When you durst do it then you were a man'
. Here, Lady Macbeth, in her hubris, attempts to shame Macbeth into killing King Duncan by questioning his manhood.
By using the the past tense (
'durst'
and
'were'
) Shakespeare creates tense tone, as Lady Macbeth is challenging Macbeth to 'dare' to act heroically.
This stings Macbeth's pride and allows Lady Macbeth to take the upper hand, manipulating Macbeth to her will. The audience would, I believe, respond negatively to the two of them for failing to live up to their gender stereotypes for the time period, thereby increasing the unnaturalness of the scene, which is building up to the murder of Kind Duncan. Shakespeare is being really clever here because this contrasts with Macbeth's presentation in Act One Scene Two, when two similes are used to compare him to an
'eagle'
and a
'lion'
. These two animals are at the top of the food chain and are, therefore, fierce predators. Historically, being an effective fighter is regarded as a very masculine quality and all classical heroes were great warriors; so, when Lady Macbeth attacks masculinity, she is attacking his self-image as a great warrior and the hero of his own story. And yet, there is something even more subtle happening here too, as
'lions'
and
'eagles'
are both majestic and kingly animals, perhaps suggesting Macbeth is kingly too. And yet, these creatures are just that creatures, animals and so, perhaps Shakespeare is suggesting that Macbeth is not kingly, in fact, not even a man, just as Lady Macbeth suggests
: what appears
'fair'
is actually
'foul'
just as The Witches warned the audience in Act One Scene One
. This helps to set up Macbeth's hamartia: his hubris at believing he has the right to be king is a flaw for which he must be punished and the way it is presented makes sure the audience wants the story to end in tragedy for him. Moreover, it is King James would have responded extremely favourably to this idea, as it adds credibility to the notion that regicide is an unnatural act.

Masculinity Answer: Strong
Act One Scene Seven presents the audience with a moment of intense dramatic tension because Shakespeare creates conflict as Lady Macbeth attacks Macbeth's masculinity moments after he has won a great victory and great rewards: 'When you durst do it then you were a man'.
Here, Lady Macbeth, in her hubris, attempts to shame Macbeth into killing King Duncan by questioning his manhood.
By using the the past tense ('durst' and 'were') Shakespeare creates a tense tone, as Lady Macbeth is challenging Macbeth to 'dare' to act heroically.
This stings Macbeth's pride and allows Lady Macbeth to take the upper hand, manipulating Macbeth to her will.
The audience would, I believe, respond negatively to the two of them for failing to live up to their gender stereotypes for the time period, thereby increasing the unnaturalness of the scene, which is building up to the murder of Kind Duncan. Shakespeare is being really clever here because this contrasts with Macbeth's presentation in Act One Scene Two, when two similes are used to compare him to an 'eagle' and a 'lion'.
These two animals are at the top of the food chain and are, therefore, fierce predators.
Historically, being an effective fighter is regarded as a very masculine quality and all classical heroes were great warriors;
so, when Lady Macbeth attacks masculinity, she is attacking his self-image as a great warrior and the hero of his own story. And yet, there is something even more subtle happening here too, as 'lions' and 'eagles' are both majestic and kingly animals, perhaps suggesting Macbeth is kingly too. And yet, these creatures are just that creatures, animals and so, perhaps Shakespeare is suggesting that Macbeth is not kingly, in fact, not even a man, just as Lady Macbeth suggests: what appears 'fair' is actually 'foul' just as The Witches warned the audience in Act One Scene One. This helps to set up Macbeth's hamartia: his hubris at believing he has the right to be king is a flaw for which he must be punished and the way it is presented makes sure the audience wants the story to end in tragedy for him
. Moreover, it is King James would have responded extremely favourably to this idea, as it adds credibility to the notion that regicide is an unnatural act.

Masculinity Answer: Strong
Act One Scene Seven
presents the audience with a moment of intense dramatic tension because Shakespeare creates conflict
as Lady Macbeth attacks Macbeth's masculinity moments after he has won a great victory and great rewards: 'When you durst do it then you were a man'. Here, Lady Macbeth, in her
hubris
, attempts to shame Macbeth into killing King Duncan by questioning his manhood.
By using the the past tense ('durst' and 'were') Shakespeare creates a tense tone, as Lady Macbeth is challenging Macbeth to 'dare' to act heroically.
This stings Macbeth's pride and allows Lady Macbeth to take the upper hand, manipulating Macbeth to her will.
The audience would, I believe, respond negatively to the two of them for failing to live up to their gender stereotypes for the time period, thereby increasing the unnaturalness of the scene,
which is building up to the murder of Kind Duncan. Shakespeare is being really clever here because this contrasts with Macbeth's presentation in Act One Scene Two, when
two similes are used to compare him to an 'eagle' and a 'lion'
. These two animals are at the top of the food chain and are, therefore, fierce predators. Historically, being an effective fighter is regarded as a very masculine quality and all classical heroes were great warriors; so, when Lady Macbeth attacks masculinity, she is attacking his self-image as a great warrior and the hero of his own story. And yet, there is something even more subtle happening here too, as 'lions' and 'eagles' are both majestic and kingly animals, perhaps suggesting Macbeth is kingly too. And yet, these creatures are just that creatures, animals and so, perhaps Shakespeare is suggesting that Macbeth is not kingly, in fact, not even a man, just as Lady Macbeth suggests: what appears 'fair' is actually 'foul' just as The Witches warned the audience in Act One Scene One.
This helps to set up Macbeth's hamartia: his hubris at believing he has the right to be king is a flaw for which he must be punished and the way it is presented makes sure the audience wants the story to end in tragedy for him.
Moreover, it is King James would have responded extremely favourably to this idea, as it adds credibility to the notion that regicide is an unnatural act.
Masculinity Answer: Strong
Act One Scene Seven presents the audience with a moment of intense dramatic tension because Shakespeare creates conflict as
Lady Macbeth as attacking Macbeth's masculinity moments after he has won a great victory and great rewards
: 'When you durst do it then you were a man'. Here, Lady Macbeth, in her hubris, attempts to shame Macbeth into killing King Duncan by questioning his manhood.
By using the the past tense ('durst' and 'were') Shakespeare creates tense tone, as Lady Macbeth is challenging Macbeth to 'dare' to act heroically.
This stings Macbeth's pride and allows Lady Macbeth to take the upper hand, manipulating Macbeth to her will. The audience would, I believe, respond negatively to the two of them for
failing to live up to their gender stereotypes for the time period
, thereby increasing the unnaturalness of the scene,
which is building up to the murder of Kind Duncan
. Shakespeare is being really clever here because this contrasts with Macbeth's presentation in Act One Scene Two, when two similes are used to compare him to an 'eagle' and a 'lion'. These two animals are at the top of the food chain and are, therefore, fierce predators.
Historically, being an effective fighter is regarded as a very masculine quality and all classical heroes were great warriors;
so, when Lady Macbeth attacks masculinity, she is attacking his self-image as a great warrior and the hero of his own story. And yet, there is something even more subtle happening here too, as 'lions' and 'eagles' are both majestic and kingly animals, perhaps suggesting Macbeth is kingly too. And yet, these creatures are just that creatures, animals and so, perhaps Shakespeare is suggesting that Macbeth is not kingly, in fact, not even a man, just as Lady Macbeth suggests: what appears 'fair' is actually 'foul' just as The Witches warned the audience in Act One Scene One. This helps to set up Macbeth's hamartia: his hubris at believing he has the right to be king is a flaw for which he must be punished and the way it is presented makes sure the audience wants the story to end in tragedy for him.
Moreover, it is King James would have responded extremely favourably to this idea, as it adds credibility to the notion that regicide is an unnatural act.

Masculinity Answer: Strong
Well-selected quotation, cross-references and key words (AO1/AO2)
Perceptive, convincing analysis of meaning (AO1)
Shakespeare's methods and dramatic effects (AO2)
Different contextual factors linked to specific references to the text. (AO3)
The Chief Examiner's Guidance: AO2
Don't just name methods without exploring the effects!
Try not to focus on verbs, nouns, adjectives etc. Focus on formal methods (e.g. motifs, symbolism, dialogue, contrast, imagery, structure, characterisaton and so on)
Explore the intended effect on the audience or reader. Remember effects are the most important aspect for AO2.
The Chief Examiner's Guidance: AO3
Context can include:
social and historical influence
how this part relates to the rest of the text
the audience or reader's own context (including yours!)
how this text relates to the literary genre
Don't make sweeping statements: e.g. 'Everyone believed in witches, so they would all...'.
Link contextual ideas to specific references in the text; don't just bolt them on!
Motifs
Isolation
:
'solitary as an oyster'
'To edge his way along the crowded paths of life, warning all human sympathy to keep its distance'
'"A solitary child, neglected by his friends, is left there still." Scrooge said he knew it. And he sobbed.'

Cold and ice
:
'The cold within him froze his old features, nipped his pointed nose, shriveled his cheek, stiffened his gait'
'External heat and cold had little influence on Scrooge.'

Light and dark
:
'the fog and darkness thickened so, that people ran about with flaring links'
'its belt sparkled and glittered now in one part and now in another, and what was light one instant, at another time was dark, so the figure itself fluctuated in its distinctness'

The weather
:
'No warmth could warm, no wintry weather chill him. No wind that blew was bitterer than he... The heaviest rain, and snow, and hail, and sleet, could boast of the advantage over him in only one respect. They often "came down" handsomely, and Scrooge never did.'
'No fog, no mist; clear, bright, jovial, stirring, cold; cold, piping for the blood to dance to; Golden sunlight; Heavenly sky; sweet fresh air; merry bells. Oh, glorious. Glorious!'

Change
:
"What is the matter?" asked the Spirit./"Nothing," said Scrooge. "Nothing. There was a boy singing a Christmas Carol at my door last night. I should like to have given him something: that's all."
'"I am as light as a feather, I am as happy as an angel, I am as merry as a schoolboy. I am as giddy as a drunken man. A merry Christmas to everybody!"'

Planning
Don't just jump straight in and write. Make a brief plan, so that you know you're covering everything.
Social Injustice
AO3: the notions of charity and redemption are key in the understanding of being a good Christian, just as Dickens liked to think he was.
'This boy is Ignorance. This girl is Want.'
'die.. decrease the surplus population.'
'great many back-payments'
AO1: Ignorance symbolises the deliberate cruelty of the rich; Want symbolises the terrible hardship of the poor.
AO3: these words come back to 'haunt' Scrooge in Stave Three when he learns Tiny Tim will die. This is a major moment in his change.
AO2: the word choice is cold and unsympathetic and sets up the reader's desire for Scrooge's redemption.
AO1: Scrooge redeems his refusal to help the charity collectors. We don't learn how much but the gentleman's reaction suggests it was considerable.
AO2: the way this is structured, by linking back to Stave One, the reader understands that Scrooge's change is genuine and complete.
AO1: Scrooge shows no compassion towards the suffering poor. He would rather they die than help them.
AO3: as the poor moved to cities, their rich employers ignored their responsibility to their welfare.
AO2: the personification of these two social injustices forces the reader to confront the unnecessary inequality in Britain.
Narrative Voice
This is a really important method.
The
narrative voice
is in the
third person
(he, not I)
limited omniscient
(everything only one character knows) viewpoint:
'But what did Scrooge care? It was the very thing he liked. To edge his way along the crowded paths of life, warning all human sympathy to keep its distance, was what the knowing ones call "nuts" to Scrooge.'
Occasionally, the
narrative voice
slips into
direct address
because Dickens wants us persuaded of the story's Christian messages:
'You will therefore permit me to repeat, emphatically, that Marley was as dead as a door-nail.'
[Of the Ghost of Christmas Past] '[Scrooge was] as close to it as I am now to you, and I am standing in the spirit at your elbow.'
Dickens presents Christmas as a really generous time.
For example, the Ghost of Christmas Present on a pile of food:
'Heaped up on the floor, to form a kind of throne, were turkeys, geese, game, poultry, brawn, great joints of meat, sucking-pigs, long wreaths of sausages, mince-pies, plum-puddings, barrels of oysters, red-hot chestnuts, cherry-cheeked apples, juicy oranges, luscious pears, immense twelfth-cakes, and seething bowls of punch, that made the chamber dim with their delicious steam.'
This is a
list

of lots of foods people would have at Christmas. This shows how generous he is.

All Christians believed that you should have lots of food to celebrate Christmas.
Exemplar Answer: The Significance of Christmas
Strengths:
Focuses on the question (AO1)
The quotation links to the question (AO1/AO2)
Basic explanation of meaning (AO1)
Dickens' methods (AO2)
Context (AO3)
Weaknesses:
It doesn't focus on the big ideas.
The quotation is far too long (AO1/AO2)
No development (AO1)
Just 'feature spots' a method (AO2)
Sweeping statement about context (AO3)
One of the main themes of the novella is
the importance of Christmas
, the main Christian festival. In Stave One, Dickens establishes the idea that
Scrooge rejects Christmas and the generosity that comes with it
because it clashes with his greedy ideals about 'business'. The narrative voice tells the reader that 'on Christmas Eve -- old Scrooge sat busy in his counting-house', suggesting that, for Scrooge, money comes first. When Fred visits to invite him to celebrate Christmas, Scrooge retorts '"Merry Christmas! What right have you to be merry? What reason have you to be merry? You're poor enough."' The use of questioning in the speech ensures that Scrooge is set up as a selfish and miserable character. This makes his redemption,
when he embraces Christmas
in 'The End of It' all the more cathartic for the reader. We want Scrooge to change and when he asks the 'delightful boy' to purchase 'Not the little prize Turkey [but] the big one' for the Cratchits, the reader is pleased that Christian values of charity and compassion have triumphed over greed and 'Ignorance'.
The motif of Christmas
, unsurprisingly, returns throughout the short story. For example, the Ghost of Christmas Presentt sits on a 'kind of throne' 'heaped' up with delicious foods. Dickens has the reader salivating with his crafty use of a very long list including expensive treats such 'great joints of meat, sucking-pigs, long wreaths of sausages' and so on. The Ghost of Christmas Past and his surroundings symbolise the indulgence middle class
readers would have expected at Christmas time
. However, Dickens contrasts this last in the Stave when they visit the Cratchits' home. Their poverty means that they only have a 'goose' a cheaper bird, and yet the family are grateful for its' tenderness and flavour, size and cheapness'. It is 'Eked out by apple-sauce and mashed potatoes' but is 'a sufficient dinner for the whole family'. The intention here is to challenge the reader's 'Ignorance' of the 'Want' that poor families experienced in Victorian England. For Dickens, it's clear that he wanted to make his reader feel guilt and greater social responsibility for the 'common welfare'.
Exemplar Answer: Best
Focuses is guided by the question (AO1)
One of the main themes of the novella is the importance of Christmas, the main Christian festival. In Stave One, Dickens establishes the idea that Scrooge rejects Christmas and the generosity that comes with it because it clashes with his greedy ideals about
'business'
. The narrative voice tells the reader that '
on Christmas Eve -- old Scrooge sat busy in his counting-house'
, suggesting that, for Scrooge, money comes first. When Fred visits to invite him to celebrate Christmas, Scrooge retorts
'"Merry Christmas! What right have you to be merry? What reason have you to be merry? You're poor enough."'
The use of questioning in the speech ensures that Scrooge is set up as a selfish and miserable character. This makes his redemption, when he embraces Christmas in 'The End of It' all the more cathartic for the reader. We want Scrooge to change and when he asks the 'delightful boy' to purchase
'Not the little prize Turkey [but] the big one'
for the Cratchits, the reader is pleased that Christian values of charity and compassion have triumphed over greed and
'Ignorance'.

The motif of Christmas, unsurprisingly, returns throughout the short story. For example, the Ghost of Christmas Present sits on a
'kind of throne' 'heaped'
up with delicious foods. Dickens has the reader salivating with his crafty use of a very long list including expensive treats such
'great joints of meat, sucking-pigs, long wreaths of sausages
'

and so on. The Ghost of Christmas Past and his surroundings symbolise the indulgence middle class readers would have expected at Christmas time. However, Dickens contrasts this last in the Stave when they visit the Cratchits' home. Their poverty means that they only have a
'goose'
a cheaper bird, and yet the family are grateful for its' tenderness and flavour, size and cheapness'. It is
'Eked out by apple-sauce and mashed potatoes' but is 'a sufficient dinner for the whole family'.
The intention here is to challenge the reader's 'Ignorance' of the 'Want' that poor families experienced in Victorian England. For Dickens, it's clear that he wanted to make his reader feel guilt and greater social responsibility for the
'common welfare'
.
Exemplar Answer: Best
Well-selected references to the text (AO1).
One of the main themes of the novella is the importance of Christmas, the main Christian festival. In Stave One,
Dickens establishes the idea that Scrooge rejects Christmas and the generosity that comes with it because it clashes with his greedy ideals about 'business'.
The narrative voice tells the reader that 'on Christmas Eve -- old Scrooge sat busy in his counting-house', suggesting that, for Scrooge, money comes first. When Fred visits to invite him to celebrate Christmas, Scrooge retorts '"Merry Christmas! What right have you to be merry? What reason have you to be merry? You're poor enough."' The use of questioning in the speech ensures that
Scrooge is set up as a selfish and miserable character
. This makes his redemption, when he embraces Christmas in 'The End of It' all the more cathartic for the reader. We want Scrooge to change and when he asks the 'delightful boy' to purchase 'Not the little prize Turkey [but] the big one' for the Cratchits, the reader is pleased that
Christian values of charity and compassion have triumphed over greed and 'Ignorance'
.
The motif of Christmas, unsurprisingly, returns throughout the short story. For example, the Ghost of Christmas Present sits on a 'kind of throne' 'heaped' up with delicious foods. Dickens has the reader salivating with his crafty use of a very long list including expensive treats such 'great joints of meat, sucking-pigs, long wreaths of sausages' and so on.
The Ghost of Christmas Past and his surroundings symbolise the indulgence middle class readers would have expected at Christmas time.
However, Dickens contrasts this last in the Stave when they visit the Cratchits' home. Their poverty means that they only have a 'goose' a cheaper bird, and yet the family are grateful for its' tenderness and flavour, size and cheapness'. It is 'Eked out by apple-sauce and mashed potatoes' but is 'a sufficient dinner for the whole family'. The intention here is to challenge the reader's 'Ignorance' of the 'Want' that poor families experienced in Victorian England. For Dickens, it's clear that he wanted to make his reader feel guilt and greater social responsibility for the 'common welfare'.
Exemplar Answer: Best
Developed analysis (AO1).
One of the main themes of the novella is the importance of Christmas, the main Christian festival. In Stave One, Dickens establishes the idea that Scrooge rejects Christmas and the generosity that comes with it because it clashes with his greedy ideals about 'business'. The
narrative voice
tells the reader that 'on Christmas Eve -- old Scrooge sat busy in his counting-house',
suggesting that, for Scrooge, money comes first.
When Fred visits to invite him to celebrate Christmas, Scrooge retorts '"Merry Christmas! What right have you to be merry? What reason have you to be merry? You're poor enough."'
The use of questioning in the speech ensures that Scrooge is set up as a selfish and miserable character. This makes his redemption, when he embraces Christmas in 'The End of It' all the more cathartic for the reader. We want Scrooge to change and when he asks the 'delightful boy' to purchase 'Not the little prize Turkey [but] the big one' for the Cratchits, the reader is pleased that Christian values of charity and compassion have triumphed over greed and 'Ignorance'.
The
motif of Christmas
, unsurprisingly,
returns throughout the short story
. For example, the Ghost of Christmas Present sits on a 'kind of throne' 'heaped' up with delicious foods.
Dickens has the reader salivating with his crafty use of a very long list
including expensive treats such 'great joints of meat, sucking-pigs, long wreaths of sausages' and so on. The Ghost of Christmas Past and his surroundings symbolise the indulgence middle class readers would have expected at Christmas time. However,
Dickens contrasts this last in the Stave when they visit the Cratchits' home.
Their poverty means that they only have a 'goose' a cheaper bird, and yet the family are grateful for its' tenderness and flavour, size and cheapness'. It is 'Eked out by apple-sauce and mashed potatoes' but is 'a sufficient dinner for the whole family'.
The intention here is to challenge the reader's 'Ignorance' of the 'Want' that poor families experienced
in Victorian England. For Dickens,
it's clear that he wanted to make his reader feel guilt and greater social responsibility for the 'common welfare'.
Exemplar Answer: Best
Methods and effects (AO2).
One of the main themes of the novella is the
importance of Christmas, the main Christian festival
. In Stave One, Dickens establishes the idea that Scrooge rejects Christmas and the generosity that comes with it because it clashes with his greedy ideals about 'business'. The narrative voice tells the reader that 'on Christmas Eve -- old Scrooge sat busy in his counting-house', suggesting that, for Scrooge, money comes first. When Fred visits to invite him to celebrate Christmas, Scrooge retorts '"Merry Christmas! What right have you to be merry? What reason have you to be merry? You're poor enough."' The use of questioning in the speech ensures that Scrooge is set up as a selfish and miserable character. This makes his redemption, when he embraces Christmas in 'The End of It' all the more cathartic for the reader. We want Scrooge to change and when he asks the 'delightful boy' to purchase 'Not the little prize Turkey [but] the big one' for the Cratchits, the reader is pleased that
Christian values of charity and compassion
have triumphed over greed and 'Ignorance'.
The motif of Christmas, unsurprisingly, returns throughout the short story. For example, the Ghost of Christmas Present sits on a 'kind of throne' 'heaped' up with delicious foods. Dickens has the reader salivating with his crafty use of a very long list including expensive treats such 'great joints of meat, sucking-pigs, long wreaths of sausages' and so on. The Ghost of Christmas Past and his surroundings symbolise
the indulgence middle class readers would have expected at Christmas time
. However, Dickens contrasts this last in the Stave when they visit the Cratchits' home. Their poverty means that they only have a 'goose' a cheaper bird, and yet the family are grateful for its' tenderness and flavour, size and cheapness'. It is 'Eked out by apple-sauce and mashed potatoes' but is 'a sufficient dinner for the whole family'. The intention here is to challenge
the reader's 'Ignorance' of the 'Want' that poor families experienced in Victorian England
. For Dickens, it's clear that he wanted to make his reader feel guilt and
greater social responsibility for the 'common welfare'.
Exemplar Answer: Best
The influence of contextual factors (AO3).
Dramatic Effects
Consider how Shakespeare uses language to:
create characters
create relationships between characters
create dramatic mood (tension, conflict, anger, frustration, outrage, pathos (pity), catharsis (emotional release)
explore ideas and themes

Remember understanding the dramatic effects is far more important than naming fancy techniques.
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