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The Core Six: Essential Strategies for Achieving Excellence

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Transcript of The Core Six: Essential Strategies for Achieving Excellence

The Core Six:
Essential Strategies for Achieving Excellence

READING FOR MEANING
Proficient Readers
Mastery of critical reading phases
Previewing and predicting
Searching for relevant information
Reflecting on learning

INDUCTIVE LEARNING
Deepens understanding of content
Develops inference and evidence-gathering skills
COMPARE & CONTRAST
Critical thinking strategy
Builds memory
Eliminates confusion

CIRCLE OF KNOWLEDGE
Students develop new insights and perspectives
CoK helps teachers plan and conduct discussions

WRITE TO LEARN
Used to improve students' thinking
Deepens their comprehension of content
Helps teachers conduct formative assessments with minimal paperwork

VOCABULARY'S CODE
Strategic approach to direct vocabulary instruction that helps students master crucial concepts and retain new vocabulary terms
Why?
Text complexity
Evidence
Core skills of reading
What?
Comprehension instruction
Delores Durkin's (1978-9) study
How?
1. Identify a short text

2. Generate a list of statements about the text

3. Introduce the topic and preview statements before reading begins

4. Students should record evidence for and against during (or after) reading
1. Good reading is active reading (Pressley, 2006).
3. Comprehension skills can be taught successfully to nearly all readers, including young and emerging readers (Keene and Zimmerman, 2007).
2. Comprehension involves a repertoire of skills, or reading and thinking strategies (Zimmerman and Hutchins, 2003).
How?
5. Students discuss reading in small groups or pairs

6. Conduct whole-class discussion requiring students to justify their positions

7. Use student responses to evaluate their understanding of the reading and ability to use evidence
Support/Refute Organizer
Planning
Standards
Choose the right text
Pre-read
Read for Meaning statements
Opener
Questions to provoke discussion
Sample Statements
See Figure 1.2
Writing Extension
Use statements to help students formulate written arguments
- Completed or new lesson

- Be the center of the content
- Connect to standards and objectives
- Require students to draw heavily on text
The statement should
"Read" for Meaning
Data
Charts
Paintings
Film Clips
Websites
Lab Experiments
"A Secret for Two"
Previewing and predicting before reading

Actively searching for relevant information during reading

Reflecting on learning after reading
Collection of research-based strategies to help teachers and students respond to the demands of CCSS
Reading for Meaning
Inductive Learning
Circle of Knowledge
Write to Learn
The Core Six:
Essential Strategies for Achieving Excellence

Vocabulary's Code
Strategy's Focus
Promotes skills of proficient readers
Increase ability to understand rigorous texts

CCSS Skills Addressed
Managing text complexity
Evaluating & using evidence
Developing core skills of reading

Compare & Contrast
Strategy's Focus
Conduct comparative analysis

CCSS Skills Addressed
Conduct comparative analysis of specific academic content and readings of texts
Integrating information from multiple sources

Strategy's Focus
Analyze to form generalizations
Look for and identify patterns and structures

CCSS Skills Addressed
Make inferences from patterns
Provide evidence to support thinking
Master vocabulary

Strategy's Focus
Emphasizes deeper thinking and thoughtful communication through well-planned discussions

CCSS Skills Addressed
Speaking, listening, and presenting
Integrating and evaluating evidence
Collaborating with peers

Strategy's Focus
Integrate writing into daily instruction
Develop students’ writing skills

CCSS Skills Addressed
Develop higher-order thinking through writing
Writing in the key CC text types
Argument
Information/explanatory texts
Narratives
Wide-range of writing for tasks, audiences, and purposes

Strategy's Focus
Vocabulary instruction that improves students’ ability to retain and use vocabulary terms

CCSS Skills Addressed
Mastering academic vocabulary
Improving literacy across all strands
Building background knowledge as a foundation

“Strategic instruction is inspired rather than tired”
Capture students’ interest
Hook (opener)
Mystery
Controversy
Personal experience
“What if” questions
Bridge the discussion to the lesson

Explain the strategy’s purpose and students’ roles in the strategy
Tell students its name
Explain how it works
Describe why it is important
Be clear about what the expectations are for the students

Figure 1.2 Reading for Meaning poster
Teach the thinking embedded in the strategy
Discuss the concept of evidence
What?
When?
How?
Difference?
Model what good evidence sounds like using simple claims
Use discussion and questioning techniques to extend student thinking
Q-Space – technique used for improving discussion and questioning
More information on pg. 42
Ask students to synthesize and transfer their learning
Promote students’ ability to use learning in new contexts
Utilize a Core Six strategy with a smaller task then have them apply it to a task on a more difficult scale
Leave time for reflection
Students need time to think on content and process
For example, students can discuss how one of the techniques in a Core Six strategy helped them complete a task.
Why?
Comparative thinking
Comparative reading
"Best bet" to increase student achievement.
Marzano, Pickering, and Pollock (2001) concur!
Research
Pitfall #1
: After learning comparisons

Pitfall #2
: Students compare without knowing all of the characteristics

Pitfall #3
: Students don't know what to look for
Research
Pitfall #4
: Inefficient way to visualize for students

Pitfall #5
: ID similarities & differences as the end

Pitfall #6
: Learning not applied or transferred by students
Implementation
Phase one:
Description
Goal:
Students should describe each item being compared separately
Hook
Bridge hook to lesson's purpose
Clear criteria provided
Implementation
Phase two:

Comparison
Goal:

Students should use their descriptions to determine similarities and differences
Model good comparative thinking using generic items (fork/spoon)
Help students line up parallel differences

Implementation
Phase three:

Conclusion
Goal:

Students should draw conclusions from comparison
Use questioning
Are the two items more alike or more different? Think of some causes and effects of this difference.

What's the most important difference?

What conclusions can you draw?
Implementation
Phase four:

Application
Goal:

Students should apply their learning by creating a product or completing a task
Move students toward independence in the entire process of comparing and contrasting
Planning
Standards
to be addressed
Define and explain
the purpose
Content selection
that lends itself for increased clarity when compared or contrasted
Phase one -
sources, criteria
Phase two -
model
Top Hat Organizer
Phase three -
facilitate
discussion and questions
Phase four -
task
that allows students to demonstrate and transfer their learning
Writing Extension
Students can convert their comparison into a comparative essay using transitional words and phrases.
Alike
Although
But
Compared with
Different from
Either...or
Have in common
Nonetheless
Not only...but also
Yet
While
Comparative Writing Framework Figure 2.3
I am comparing and contrasting ____ and ____. Although ____ and ____ are different, they are alike in some ways. For example, ____ and ____ are both ____. There are also some interesting differences between ____ and ____. For example, ____. [Concluding sentence:] ____.
Other Considerations
To develop a students' ability to compare and contrast, consider these other strategies:

Classifying
Creating metaphors
Creating analogies
Description Organizer
Figure 2.2
Top Hat Organizer
Figure 2.1
Sample Lesson
How do you compare proportional relationships using two different representations?

Do all linear equations model proportional relationships?

How could proportional relationships benefit us in everyday life?


Reminders
-Notate all strategies in your lesson plans.

-Teacher share lesson: 11.22.13; 2nd planning
Why?
1. Inference


- Emphasizes the sub-processes
Examining information closely
Looking for relationships
Generating hypotheses
Drawing conclusions


Why?
2. Evidence
- Gather evidence to support hypotheses
- Consider evidence which counters hypotheses
Why?
3. Academic Vocabulary
- Search for relationships among words
- Organize terms in the larger context
Research
Hilda Taba, 1971
Less direct instruction, more student discovery

Dean, 2012
Concurs with Taba
Teach students to classify information and generate and test hypotheses
Implementation
Over time, students will be able to use the inductive process to generalize and conceptualize information (7)

Teachers will...

1. Identify and distribute vocabulary
Including key words, phrases, items, problems, or images from a reading, lecture, or unit.

2. Model the process of grouping and labeling
Implementation
Students will...

3. Analyze and group items.

4. Label the groups.

Figure 3.1
Implementation
Students will...

5. Make predictions or hypotheses.

Collect evidence that supports or refutes predictions

Figure 3.2
Implementation
Students will...

6. Reflect on the IL process and participate in a teacher facilitated discussion.
Planning Considerations
Standards
Select specific, not general, content
Organizer
Teacher selected or student created
Modeling
Non-instructional routines
Facilitate discussion through questioning
Application of learning by students
Questions, Comments, or Concerns?
Generate ideas
Group items
Topic sentences
Sequence ideas
Rough draft
Editing
Inductive Writing
Final draft and reflection
Identify the topic
Read carefully
Look for patterns
Review and edit groups
Sequence information
Rough draft
Multiple Document Learning
Final draft and reflection
Reminders
Teacher share
- December 11th or 13th; 2nd planning period
Lesson plans
- RM, CC, and IL
Imagine you were handed a bag of Skittles (or M&Ms) to open.
What would you do?
Would you arrange them in rows according to their color?
Would you arrange them in rows according to their color, then form a shape?
Would you make a shape, not considering the colors?
Would you pick out the colors that you like and/or dislike?
Or would you just dig in?

Why?
Effective oral communication is a crucial 21st century skill.
Speaking and listening require thinking.
Discussions build collaborative and interpersonal skills.
Research
Essential criteria for successful discussions:

A high degree of student participation.
A strong focus on essential content.
High levels of thinking.
Moves to
Increase Participation
Allow students to test & share ideas in small groups
Use a variety of recognition techniques (see page 40)
Court Controversy
Get students personally and actively involved (see pp. 40 & 41)
Moves for Keeping Focus
Integrate note making into discussions. (MVP)
Record responses and summarize frequently. (see pp. 41-42)
Moves for
Encouraging High Levels
of Thinking
Encourage students to stop & think about the question.
Use Q-SPACE to shape discussion.
Ask students to reflect on the quality of their contributions. (Fig. 4.1, p. 43)
Q-SPACE
Question
Silence
Probe
Accept
Clarify
Elaborate
Implementation
1. Hook with an open-ended question
2. Think time
3. Focusing question (essential)
4. Write and share responses
5. Whole class discussion
6. Use variety of recognition techniques to increase participation and Q-SPACE to shape discussion
7. Record and summarize
8. Time to reflect
9. Synthesis and/or application activity
Planning Considerations
Writing Extension
Connect the moves to writing process.
Give students writing assignments that stem from a class example. (i.e. argument writing)
Sample Lesson - Health
Purpose:
Health students are exploring ways to enhance their health through nutrition and exercise (SC Standard 1). Recently, the "Super Size Me" movie has been refuted by John Cisna's weight loss plan. Students will be expected to formulate and express their own opinions about this controversial topic through discussion. Students will be provided Cisna's weight loss plan, an opportunity to view portions of the movie, the USDA approved dietary recommendations, and McDonald's nutrition menu.
Sample Lesson - Health
Sparking Question:
What influences your choices when dining at a fast food restaurant?
Focusing Question:
How can we decide whether the benefits of fast food options outweigh the nutritional concerns and health risks? What role, if any, should the public play in this debate? What role, if any, should the government play?
Sample Lesson - Health
Synthesis Activity:
Students will re-group themselves based on their opinions and discuss how they determined their position. Using their preferred media format, each group will create an announcement that promotes or negates the nutritional value of fast food selections and the roles the public and government should play?
Sample Lesson - Health
Plan:

1. Explain the purpose of the lesson.

2. Ask students the sparking question, provide think and note-taking time, and allow them to respond with 5 or less words in a round robin fashion.

3. In small groups (teacher selected), students will test and share their ideas to formulate whether they agree with "Super Size Me" or John Cisna's message.

4. Students will take a physical position as a "Super Size Me" or John Cisna supporter. Undecided students will become a group, debate the issue, and make a stance. (4 total groups)
Plan (cont.):

5. In small groups (student selected), students will complete the synthesis activity.

6. Ask students the focusing question, provide think and note-taking time, and allow them to respond in a round robin fashion. All responses are accepted. Probe and clarify as needed, and encourage students to elaborate on their thoughts.

7. Finally, students will complete the Effective Discussion Report Card
Sample Lesson - Health
Reminders
* Notate all strategies in your lesson plans (RM, CC, IL, & CK)

* Teacher Share - 1.14.14
How will I use effective discussion techniques to run the discussion?
How will my sparking question(s) activate prior knowledge?
How will my focusing question(s) set up the discussion?
How will students acquire the necessary information?
What will students do as a result of the discussion?
What are my topic and my purpose?
Other Possibilities
Support/Refute Organizer (p. 11, 31)
Student's Top Hat Organizer (p.18)
Description Organizer (p. 20)
Tip to Facilitate Successful Classroom Discussions
Increase Participation
Small group testing/sharing ideas
Variety of recognition techniques
Student calling
Round robin
Sampling
Redirection
Court controversy
Personally and actively involve students
Physical barometer
People graph
Priority pyramid
Keep Focus
Integrate note making
Record responses and summarize frequently
Record
Clarify
Summarize
Encourage Higher Levels of Thinking
Incorporate think time
Q-SPACE
Question
Silence
Probe
Accept
Clarify
Elaborate
Students self-reflection about their contribution

Why?
1. "Think builder"

2. Promotes on demand (readable writing) and extended writing and revision (polished writing).

3. Wide range of objectives and writing demands are supported.
Research
Graham & Hebert (2010) & Reeves (2002) study
100+ participants
Regular writing in sci, ss, math, and ELA improved comprehension
Graham, Harris, & Hebert (2011)

Increases teachers' ability to provide focused, formative feedback

Write to Learn Strategies
Provisional Writing
: brief, daily writing

Readable Writing
: requires students to clarify and organize their thinking to develop on-demand essays or responses

Polished Writing
: full writing and revision process
Provisional Writing Tools
Readable Writing Tools
Polished Writing Tools
Provisional Writing
Readable Writing
Polished Writing
Planning
Considerations
Using Write to Learn
Brief, daily writing that is...
like brainstorming
spontaneous writing for 2-5 minutes
capture students' interest
draw out prior knowledge
review & check content understanding
provoke thinking
spur reflection
Can be used to...
Learning Logs
4-2-1 Free Write
Not graded

Daily
Share
Connect
Monitor
Comment
Prompt
MVI
4 - Individually
2 - In pairs
1 - Quads
Free write about MVI, share among group, whole-class discussion
Requires students to clarify and organize their thinking to develop on-demand essays or responses.
Used as a form of graded assessment
Aligned to writing standards:
Argument
Informative/Explanatory Texts
Narratives
Comparison
Analysis (Textual & Mathematical)
Description
Creates discussion
3 x 3 Writing Frame
*Visual organizer to plan beginning, middle, and end of an essay.

See pgs. 58-59
*handout
Building Writing
*Scaffolds the writing process for emerging writers.
*Builds confidence and motivation.
pose question
walk around
pair up
share
challenge
draft
award points
Full writing process
Progressive phases
Generate notes, organizers, outlines, etc.
Produce first draft
Revise using a rubric
Produce second draft
Read aloud; audience provides feedback
Produce final draft
Writing Folders
House students ongoing work

Pocket 1: Initial Ideas

Pocket 2: First Draft

Pocket 3: Second Draft

Pocket 4: Final Draft
Writer's Club
Support and feedback group
1. Three to five member groups
2. Read aloud for feedback



3. Listen carefully and share thoughts
4. Synthesize feedback for final revision
Teacher- created rubric
Student-created rubric
WC discussion questions (fig. 5.2)
Purpose?
Usage?
Prompt?
Timing?
Expectations?
What? So what?Now what?
"Write to Learn is a versatile strategy for increasing both the quantity and the quality of student writing in our classrooms. It provides teachers with ready-to-use tools to turn writing into a daily habit, prepare students for the kinds of writing tasks that are crucial to their academic success, and develop students' abilities to self-assess and collaborate with fellow writers to produce high quality written work" (Silver, p. 52).
Provisional writing
may include entry/exit slips, learning logs, or 4-2-1 free writing.
Readable and Polished Writing
-Graded

-Extended response or full essay

-Reflection

-Formative

-Versatile
Readable Writing
Polished Writing
-On-demand writing

-Assigned regularly

-Assesses students' understanding and
ability to construct
responses
-Full writing process

-Peer Collaboration

-Work in progress

-Refined and comprehensive
Where do I belong?
Provisional, Readable, or Polished
Describe three things you learned in class today.
How are decimals and percents similar? How are they different?
If you could be a senator during the reign of Julius Caesar, write a narrative describing who you would be, how you would influence your fellow senators, and why?
After studying the Earth's atmosphere and weather, use your notes, lab reports, and other sources to write an essay that explains the relationship between the two.
Reminders
* Notate all strategies in your lesson plans (RM, CC, IL, CK, & WL)

* Teacher Share - 2.10.14
Why?
Research
Implementation
Planning Considerations
Writing Extension
Research
Reminders
Notate all strategies in your lesson plans
RM
- Reading for Meaning
CC
- Compare and Contrast
IL
- Inductive Learning
CK
- Circle of Knowledge
WL
- Write to Learn
VC
- Vocabulary's CODE
Teacher Share Lesson
Thursday, March 6th; 2nd planning
Coaches' Meetings - Men Riv
March 11th & 13th
Daylight Savings Time
Sunday, March 9th
Which phase?
Vocabulary is the foundation for improved literacy
Academic vocabulary is at the core of the Core
Vocabulary fuels learning
Understanding and retention improve when students interact with words in a variety of ways
Thinking deeply about new words using thinking strategies like comparison, metaphors, and non-linguistic representation are necessary
C
onnect

with new words
O
rganizing

new words into meaningful categories

D
eep-processing
the most important concepts and terms
E
xercising

the mind through strategic review and practice
What are the essential terms students need to know?
Nice-to-know words
Important words
Core-content words
How will I move students through the phases of the CODE?
Any writing assignment provides an opportunity for students to utilize new vocabulary terms in a meaningful way.
We can improve students' mastery of new terms and their power as writers by requiring them to use an appropriate number of vocabulary terms in their writing assignments.
C
onnect -
O
rganize -
D
eep-process -
E
xercise

Students in Ms. Middleton's class compare characteristics of symbols and signs, and discuss the differences between Jem's, Atticus’s, and Mrs. Debose’s visions of courage.
Mrs. Yearty uses speed quizzes and rapid-fire games such as Jeopardy and Baseball Vocabulary.
Ms. James’s arranges her vocabulary as a diagram or graphic organizer to help students see the relationship between words, but periodically she uses both Fist Lists and Webbing to help students find new relationships.
Mr. Fashion creates an illustrated Word Wall showing the key words and their place in the water cycle.
DEOC
Students remember vocabulary when the word is strongly
connected
to what they already know and have experienced.
Students remember more information when it is clearly
organized
.
Students remember vocabulary when it is
deeply processed
through visual, auditory, physical, or emotional experiences.
Students remember vocabulary when they are given the opportunity to
exercise
their brain by thinking about it in a variety of ways.
Word Walls
Power Decoding
Associations
See It, Say It, Show It, Store It
Glossary
Word Catcher
Prioritizing Vocabulary
Concept Maps
Fist Lists & Word Spiders
Word Banks
Group and Label
A Diagram to Die For
Visualizing Vocabulary
Storytelling
Metaphors
Defining Characteristics
Etymologies
A Three-Way Tie
Vocabulary Games
Use it or Lose it
Vocabulary Carousel
Practice makes Perfect
Three's a Crowd
Peer Practice
Vocabulary instruction has the greatest effect when the focus is on academic terms
Multiple exposures to new terms is necessary for a deep understanding
☺☺
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