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Chapter 8 - Solutions - Physical Science

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None Of Your Beezwax

on 19 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 8 - Solutions - Physical Science

Chapter 8
The freezing and boiling points of a liquid solvent increase or decrease when a solute is dissolved in it.
The amount of solute determines how much the physical properties of the solvent are changed.
The amount of solute that dissolves can vary.
A dilute solution has a low concentration of solute
A saturated solution contains the maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved in the solvent
A supersaturated solution is one that contains more dissolved solute than normally possible.
Sugar water is an example of a solution
A mixture
What is a solution?
A
solution
is a type of mixture called a homogenous mixture

A
Solute
is a substance that is dissolved to make a solution
A
Solvent
is the substance that dissolves the solute
A mixture
Increase of temp. has 2 effects on most solid solutes:
they dissolve faster
greater amount of solid dissolves in a given amt. of solvent
Solubility of gas increases at higher pressures and decreases at lower pressures.
Solubility depends on molecular structure
Ionic compounds are very soluble in water
Polar solvents dissolve polar solutes and nonpolar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes
Solubility
The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that will dissolve in a certain amt. of solvent at a certain Temp.
If the solute is highly soluble, a saturated solution will be very concentrated
If solute has low solubility saturated solution will be dilute
The solubility of a solution can be changed by changing temperature or pressure.
Solubility depends on the type of chemical bonds in each molecule.
Notes
Solutes, solvents, and solutions can be any of the three stages of matter
A
suspension
is a mixture containing much larger particles than a solution
Solvent and solute particles interact, but do not form new substances.
In every solution, solutes change the physical properties of a solvent
There are 2 ways a solid can dissolve in a liquid depending on the type of bonds in the compound
Ionic

+ solvent
ions separate and each one is surrounded by the solvent
Covalent
+ solvent
each molecule stays together and is surrounded by solvent molecules
Solutions can be acidic, basic, or neutral.
Acids
An acidic solution will react with a compound that contains a carbonate
Acids also react with metals
When an acid is placed on litmus paper, the paper turns red
Bases
Bases have a bitter taste and feel slippery
When a base is placed on litmus paper, it turns blue
The strength of an acid or base depends on how much the compound breaks up when dissolved
Strong acids
and bases
In water
Dissolves completely into ions
Weak acids
and bases
In water
Forms only a small number of ions
By Fatimah
The specific strengths of acids or bases are tested on a pH scale
The scale refers to the concentration of H+ ions in the solution
The scale ranges from 1-14 and is measured with an acid-base indicator paper of an electronic probe
Alloys
An alloy is a mixture of a metal and one or more other elements, usually also metals.
Alloys have different properties than the metals in them
There are many alloys used today in building, transportation, aerospace, and medicine
Full transcript