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Newspaper

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by

Ramli Sazlay

on 27 October 2013

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Transcript of Newspaper

Newspaper

Introduction
What are Acta Diurna, corantos, broadsheets and diunrnals?

Acta Diurna means actions of the day was written on the tablet, was posted on the wall after each meeting of the senate. Its circulation was in 1600.

Corantos means one-page news sheet about specific events were printed in Holand in 1620.

Broadsheets means single-sheet announcements in 1625 (News-Letter nowdays).

Diunrnals means occasional news sheets, using the same title for consecutive editions in 1641 (Daily local news appearing in other news sheets).

What is the significance of Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick, the Boston News-Letter, the New England Courant, the Pennysylvania Gazette and the New York Weekly Journal?

Public Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick. The country’s first paper lasted only one day(critical of local and European dignitaries), had also failed to obtain a license.
The Boston News-Letter. It was able to survive because of government subsidies. With government support came government control.
The New England Courant. Was the only one-publishing without authority. was popular and controversial.
The Pennysylvania Gazette. Took over a failing newspaper and was unafraid to criticize those in authority. Its independence and shield his newspaper from government control.

Factors led to development of the penny press? To yellow journalism?
At 19th century, New York City provided all necessary for new kind of audience for new kind of newspaper and new kind of journalism.
The a centre of culture, commerce and politics were ripe for the Penny Press (1-cent newspaper for everyone).
Yellow Journalism was drawing its name from the Yellow Kid, a popular cartoon character of the time.
It was a studied in excess – sensational sex, crime and disaster news (Giant headlines, heavy use of illustrations, reliance on cartoons and colour, even of today’s best newspapers).
People typically excluded from the social, cultural and political mainstream quickly saw the value of the mass media.
What are the similarities and differences between wire services and feature syndicates?
They must determine rules of membership and organizational issues such as for the columnist, essayists, cartoonists and other creative individuals as their consumer.

The wire services gathering news and distribute to their members but the feature syndicates do not gather and distribute news.
When did newspaper chains begin? Can you characterize them as they exist today?
Newspaper have been a part of public life since Roman times, prospering in Europe and coming to the Colonies in the 1690s.

Utusan Malaysia, Harakah and Majalah Mingguan Wanita etc.
Why is the newspaper an attractive medium for advertiser?
Level of value - variety of newspaper exist. Readers value newspaper quality

Good demographics - Newspaper readers reach. 5 out of 10 reads paper every day. 3 in 4 reads once a week. Readers among 79% adult office employed, 82% household incomes over $10000 and 84% college graduates.

Advantages for locals - Emphasis concept local in nature. Turn automatically to the paper and overwhelming local by 65% daily newspaper space for advertising. Of that, 60% given to local retail advertising
What is JOA?
Philosophy - Better to have two more or less independent papers in one city than to allow one to close.

Joint Operating Agreement - Merging effort of business with success local competitor so that editorial and reporting operation remain exist and separated.

Concern for editorial diversity - American belief about free press and readers. Truth from multitude/majority of tongue. Antagonistic/argument voices creates better environment.
How has convergence affected newspapers’ performance?
Technological revolution and structural economic change - Younger readers turn to tabloid and electronic media. Convenience access of internet. More information, depth, greater speed.

In 2008, age 18-24 newspaper readers counted decrease to 15%. Others prefer to web sources.

New trend and threat - Internet becomes most directly financial threat especially classified advertising business sites (eBay, cars.com and traderonline.com). It has bypassing newspaper, loss of classified ad income when advertiser deal directly with customers.

Reinvention as an opportunity - Since then, newspaper reinventing into online technologies
Even though printed readers are still dominating, belief on building online readers still encouraged.

Re-strategy for improvement - Web links adopted strategies ‘relevant on the internet’. Local newspaper develop own web sites and focus to local industry. Then, interactive own web site created (interaction between readers and journalists).

What is the Firewall? Why is it important?
Understanding the meaning - A computer program that keeps people from using or connecting the network or content without permission.

Papers online Pay wall – Accessibility for those willing to pay.

Contribution - Firewall is the distinction between pay subscription and unsubscription.

Measure the circulation rate.

Classify the classification information for information security.

How do online paper hope to succeed?
The goal is to be relevant in the internet.

Newspaper are the most trafficked web site and the choices of news seekers. Those behind the wall ought to be unique news and advertisement.

Optimism for paper web operation in order to achieve significant revenue.

Younger’s reader decline and prefer net. These group to define the readership in the future.

A constructive readership rate measurement to be established.

Web content charge to be identified and materialized.
Different types of newspapers
Papers included dailies or weeklies
National Daily Newspapers – Local medium cover with large circulations and significant social, political impact and business as well. I.e. Wall Street Journal, USA Today.
Large Metropolitan Dailies – Circulation of big-city dailies at least 5 times a week. Some establish or attract suburban-oriented readers and some publish regional version (zoned editions). I.e. Philadelphia Bulletin, Washington Star, Providence Journal, Chicago Tribune, Los Angeles Times etc.
Suburban and Small-Town Dailies – Suburbanized newspaper. Small town dailies operates in the shadow of big town or metropolitan dailies or represent its community if no big city competition. Suburban and small-town dailies and weeklies contribute almost American papers profitable. I.e. Long Island’s Newsday, Lawrence Eagle-Tribune.
Weeklies and Semiweeklies – Community reporting focus its environment weeklies or semiweeklies basis. Its allow advertiser to follow to suburb and more manageable advertising rates.
The Ethnic Press – Papers produced by fragment closely into ethnic, population or group. Came into different language or locale story. I.e. New Haven’s La Voz Hispana de Connecticut.
The Alternative and Dissident Press – Redefined papers originated from underground press. Commonly weekly printed at no cost. Strategy to downplay politics orientation, eccentric personal classified ads and other dissidence issues. I.e. Village Voice, L.A. Weekly, Boston Phoenix, Seattle Weekly.
Commuter Papers – Free dailies designed for commuters with the goal of attract advertisers and develop newspaper-reading habit. I.e. Boston Globe’s Metro, Dallas Morning News’s Quick.

What are hard news and soft news
Hard News - Stories that help peoples to make intelligent decisions and keep up with important issues of the day.

Soft News - Sensational stories that do not serve the democratic function of journalism.

Online Newspaper
Yes, several times.
Require subscription. Price cheap.
Access through button. Finding topic or page easier
Good in term of technology adaptation. Reduce paper usage.
Information remain the same unless unsubscribe.
Eyes feature is better.
Access other linkage web easy even same page.
Sometimes old style (printed) reading more satisfy. Simulation paper vs real paper.
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