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Transcript of Tuberculosis
Slow generation time - it divides every 16 to 20 hours
Can reproduce only in a warm host (usually humans)
M. tuberculosis may lie dormant for years or even decades
Very weakly Gram-positive
A 'strong' cell wall: lipids and mycolic acid
Can survive weak disinfectants and dry states for weeks.
Mycobacteria have an outer membrane lipid bilayer
The body vs TB
What is TB?
TB is a lethal disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria
Usually caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
The incubation period is from 2 to 12 weeks.
MTB can grow only within the cells of a host organism, or can be cultured in the laboratory
How is it spread?
By inhalation of droplet nuclei
when an infected person coughs, laughs, sneezes, sings, or talks.
Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can attack any part of the body.
Death rate is 66%.
85 % Pulmonary
15 % Extra-pulmonary - any part of the body
Fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue and nail clubbing.
Mutated form of Mycobacterium bovis, that has lost its virulence in humans
90% children vaccinated
Treatment is difficult and requires multiple antibiotics over a long period of time.
Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem.
Mutated bacteria, which is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin
A powerful combination is used
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MRT)
M. tuberculosis complex evolved in Africa (Somalia)
Expanded about 5000 years ago
The M. tuberculosis group has a number of members