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Tuberculosis

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by

Marek Mansell

on 12 July 2016

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Transcript of Tuberculosis

Other TB causing bacteria
Reproduction
Slow generation time - it divides every 16 to 20 hours
Can reproduce only in a warm host (usually humans)

M. tuberculosis may lie dormant for years or even decades
Structure
Very weakly Gram-positive
A 'strong' cell wall: lipids and mycolic acid
Can survive weak disinfectants and dry states for weeks.
Mycobacteria have an outer membrane lipid bilayer
The body vs TB
Tuberculosis
What is TB?
TB is a lethal disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria
Usually caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Abbreviations TB/MTB
Mycobacterium Tuberculosis
Mycobacterium bovis

Mycobacterium africanum

Mycobacterium canetti

Mycobacterium microti

The incubation period is from 2 to 12 weeks.
MTB can grow only within the cells of a host organism, or can be cultured in the laboratory
Growth
How is it spread?
By inhalation of droplet nuclei
when an infected person coughs, laughs, sneezes, sings, or talks.
Tuberculosis usually attacks the lungs but can attack any part of the body.
Death rate is 66%.

85 % Pulmonary
15 % Extra-pulmonary - any part of the body
Infection
Fever, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue and nail clubbing.
Vaccination
Bacillus Calmette–Guérin
(BCG vaccine)
Mutated form of Mycobacterium bovis, that has lost its virulence in humans
90% children vaccinated
Treatment
Treatment is difficult and requires multiple antibiotics over a long period of time.
Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem.
Mutated bacteria, which is resistant to isoniazid and rifampin
A powerful combination is used
Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MRT)
Elovution
M. tuberculosis complex evolved in Africa (Somalia)
Expanded about 5000 years ago
The M. tuberculosis group has a number of members
Prevention
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tuberculosis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycobacterium_tuberculosis
http://textbookofbacteriology.net/MTBCDC.jpg
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycolic_acid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_microscope
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycobacterium_bovis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycobacterium_africanum
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycobacterium_canetti
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycobacterium_microti
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycobacterium_bovis#mediaviewer/File:Mycobacteriuhttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Mycobacterium_bovis_BCG_ZN.jpg
https://c1.staticflickr.com/5/4071/5149398656_ebd66669fa.jpg
http://news.bbcimg.co.uk/media/images/62650000/jpg/_62650839_c0129994-mycobacterium_tube.jpg
http://www.nature.com/nri/journal/v12/n5/images/nri3211-f4.jpg
http://www.vanderbilt.edu/HRS/wellness/OHC/ohctb.pdf
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2f/Tuberculosis_symptoms.svg/676px-Tuberculosis_symptoms.svg.png
http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2008/12/04/article-0-02B302D2000005DC-145_468x286.jpg
http://a.abcnews.com/images/Health/ht_tuberculosis_070428_ms.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9c/Tuberculosis-x-ray-1.jpg
http://www.niaid.nih.gov/sitecollectionimages/topics/tuberculosis/simple2.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Horn_of_Africa.png/640px-Horn_of_Africa.png
http://thetrentonlinecom.c.presscdn.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Injection-The-Trent.jpg
http://theopsdeck.com/img.prod.PMI/PROD%20-%20PMI%2036048%20N95%20Flatfold.DEMO.jpg
https://thecustomizewindows.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/SQL-Injection.jpg
http://www.uswindowinc.com/images/wind4.jpg
http://www.personal.psu.edu/afr3/blogs/siowfa12/hand-washing.jpg
http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2011/405310.fig.001.jpg
http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/sosarafova/assets/bio307/emrivard/Pathogen%20Life%20Cycle.html
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