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The Great Dismal Swamp

By: Hannah Madel, Kelly Lor, Ashley Holbrook, and Miguel Maldonado
by

Hannah Madel

on 5 October 2016

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Transcript of The Great Dismal Swamp


The Great Dismal swamp has no beginning because its a swamp not a river, the swamp is the head of six rivers one of them being the Pasquotank river.

Mouth - End
The Pasquotank river one of the seven rivers that starts at the Great Dismal Swamp, this river empties at the Atlantic Ocean.

Turbidity - Water Quality
The water in the Great Dismal Swamp is very acidic, I couldn't find information on how acidic the great dismal swamp water is now, but, in 1996 the water was around 3.5-4.0 in acidic.

Life In Water and On Land
Over two hundred species of birds have been identified on the refuge; ninety-six of these species have been reported as nesting on or near the Great Dismal Swamp including the Swainson's Warbler and Wayne's Warbler (a race of the Black-throated Green Warbler). At least forty-seven species of mammals can be found in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, representing most mammals found in Virginia.The red fox, Gray fox, beaver, black bear, and the bobcat are several of them mammals found in the swamp or near the swamp. There are about 27 know types of fish in the waters on the Great Dismal Swamp. Including the Longnose gar and the american eel. There are also different type of reptiles and insects.


Ecosystems
The Great dismal swamp's ecosystem is mostly swamp because, its a swamp.
Stream Flow
A river that begins at the Great Dismal Swamp has a stream flow of 115 long-term median flow and lowest depth of 6 1/2 ft and discharge of 91 cubic feet of water per second.
Topography
The topography of the Great Dismal Swamp is mainly flat, considering the swamp is located in the coastal plain region of North Carolina.
Headwater - Begins
Great Dismal Swamp
This presentation follows the "fair use" rules of the U.S. Copyright law.
Urbanization
There are not many houses or companies around the swamp because it is secluded.

Pollutants/pH
There are not many pollutants, except that of the acids in the swamp. These acids cause high acidity in the swamp which is the result of the plants in the region. The pH is about the same annually, ranging between 3.5 and 4.0 mg/L. The acidic water is affected by rainfall almost bringing it up to neutral 7.0.
Economy
There is not much brought in from the swamp into the economy, except for what comes from the tourists visiting the swamp and the Birding festivals being held each year. The birding festivals allow people to view the 200 species of birds nesting in or near the refuge.

Natural Resources
The natural resources include timber, agricultural features, and fishing.

Food Chains
The Great Dismal Swamp is one of the largest areas on the east coast. Because of this, the organisms on the bottom of the food chain are at a constant threat due to the larger predators that make the swamp their home.

Nutrients
This region has very mineral-rich soil that drains very slowly, therefore it has good nutrients.

Potable Water/ Useable Water
Erosion
Niches-Habitats
Hydro-Electric Plants
Flood Plain
Aquifer/Watershed
Drought
Agriculture
River History
Floods
Human Influences
Saltwater Intrusion
Population vs Potable Water
Invasive Species
Works Cited:
"Albemarle RegionOfficial Albemarle Area Site for FREE NC Coastal Map." Legends of the Great Dismal Swamp Tales From The Coast! N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014.
"Great Dismal Swamp." NCpedia Home Page. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014.
"Great Dismal Swamp." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 Apr. 2014. Web. 02 May 2014.
"Home - Great Dismal Swamp - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service." Home - Great Dismal Swamp - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014.
"Kayaking-Great Dismal Swamp Canal." Kayaking-Great Dismal Swamp Canal. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014.
"Lake Drummond and Great Dismal Swamp." Lake Drummond and Great Dismal Swamp. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014.
"PH Data -- Great Dismal Swamp Boardwalk Project." PH Data -- Great Dismal Swamp Boardwalk Project. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014.
"Royster Northeast NC Guide." Royster Northeast NC Guide. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014.
"Swamps." NatureWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 May 2014.
William Byrd II visited, the swamp. Just to the south, in 1728 while he was surveying the boundary lime between Virginia and North Carolina. Byrd, and later George Washington advocated the construction of the canal through the swamp. Washington and his partners purchased about 50,000, began to log them and built a ditch to transport the timber. The Dismal Swamp Canal formed in 1787 to connect the Chesapeake Bay Albemarle Sound, construction began in 1793 and was completed in 1805. In 1974, the US Congress created the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge to protect the swamps fragile ecosystem.
These roads disrupted the swamp's natural hydrology, as the ditches which were dug to provide soil for the road beds drained water from the swamp. The roads also blocked the flow of water across the swamp's surface, flooding some areas of the swamp with stagnant water.
In 1996 the carbonic acid water levels were at 3.4,4.0. Which shows the water is acidic, This is caused by the acid release of the plants into the swamp.
Two southern species, the Swanson's Warbler and Wayne's Warbler (a race of the Black-throated Green Warbler), are more common in the Great Dismal Swamp than in other coastal locations. Other birds of interest are the Wood Duck, Barred Owl, Pileated Woodpecker, and Prothonotary Warbler.

There is a long history of large fires in the Great Dismal Swamp ecosystem. In the last century, large fire activity has often coincided with intensive logging activity and hurricane impacts. Deep organic soils make all fire operations a challenge
The amber-colored drinkable water comes from the center of the swamp, Lake Drummond. It has provided these potable water for thousands of years by the tannic acid from the bark of the gum, juniper, and cypress trees. People spoke of the magical qualities of the swamp's tea-colored water and how, if it were regularly drunk, it prevented illness and promoted long life.
Such devices allow refuges to reduce saltwater intrusion into wetlands, specifically at Alligator River Refuge, and move in fresh water during drought conditions. That keeps peat from drying out and becoming flammable at refuges like Pocosin Lakes and Great Dismal Swamp.
Additionally, as sea–level rise increases salinity in soil, forested wetlands are dying and being replaced by salt–tolerant shrubs and then marsh. During this transition, standing or fallen dead trees increase fuel for wildfires. Land managers are experimenting with ways to decrease saltwater intrusion and slow these changes, including planting salt–tolerant tree species and installing special water control structures
Erosion levels are very high, the six other rivers that flows out from this swamp can cause destruction.
This unique old forest inhabited by a variation of animals, 21 species of reptiles, 58 species of turtles, lizards, salamanders, frogs and toads. About 200 species of birds and 47 types of mammals.
There is no hydro-electric plants, it is preserved by the fishing and the wildlife service.
The swamp is its own flood plain.
The watershed of the Great Dismal Swamp is the Pasquotank river basin. It drains the water from the Great Dismal Swamp into the groundwater.
Highly resistance to droughts, but its water levels sometimes gets lower than usual due to the lack of precipitation. The most recent one was in 2007.
Agriculture, commercial and residential development destroyed much of the swamp, so that the remaining portion around the refuge represents less than half of the original swamp.
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