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Social Context SC4
Transcript of Social Context SC4
YMCA George Williams College
Lecture 14, 16, 18
Political Power and Oppression
Simon Claridge and Natalie Bell
with thanks to Lesley Buckland
What is locality,
can you think of
What do neighbourhoods
What makes a good neighbourhood
What makes a bad neighbourhood
What is social housing
How can we create liveable and enduring neighbourhoods
How do you feel when you look at this picture?
Sprawl - the spreading out of cities and towns over the land surrounding them has created major problems with regard to sustainability and community. It has involved:
- Using 'single-use zoning' i.e. separating residential areas from commercial and industrial areas;
- Commuting - building miles of roads to connect different zones and activities; and consuming significant amounts of people's time and resources as they move from one place to the next.
There has been a further casualty to sprawl - suburban sprawl has meant that people travel much further to work, shop and enjoy leisure opportunities. As a result there is less time available (and less inclination) to become involved in local groups and networks. Furthermore the relative distance between people has further encouraged privatised living - the crucial concept of association (which underpins civic life) requires density of contacts in institutions and public spaces.
Can you walk to work?
How long would it take you?
How close are you to the shops?
Are there any leisure facilities, including pubs/clubs/libraries/sports venues/cinemas etc. easily accessible from where you live?
How long does it take you to get there?
How far is your local school?
1. The centre - Each neighbourhood need a clear centre - a place we can find shops, commerce, social and cultural activities and government offices.
2. The five minute walk - People should be able to satisfy the ordinary needs of life: living, working, shopping within five minutes walk from their homes.
3. The street network - A street patter should take the form of a continuous web with paths linking one place to another. In suburbia things are more spread out, and linear. This means that people do not have the same incentive to walk, nor the same flexibility and choice about routes.
4. Narrow, versatile streets - Where there are a larger number of streets (as in a traditional neighbourhood pattern) it means that traffic can be shared and streets smaller.
5. Mixed use - In suburbia areas are oftent zoned - residential areas are kept separate from industrial areas, these in turn are separated from commercial areas. In the traditional neighbourhood pattern the buildings on a street are classically used for different purposes.
6. Special sites for special buildings - Traditional neighbourhoods usually make a special place for civic buildings - libraries, schools, town and city halls, places of worship.
Sociologists use the concept of social stratification to describe inequalities between individuals and groups within societies. Often we think of stratification in terms of assets or property, but it can also occur because of other attributes, such as?
What examples of social stratification can you think of
So what about
What class are you
'For Marx, a social class is a group of people who stand in common relationship to the means of production - the means by which they gain a livelihood. In this sense, all societies have a central class system. Before the rise of modern industry, the means of production consisted of land and the instruments used to tend crops or pastoral animals. The two main classes were those who owned land (aristocrats, gentry or slave-holders) and those who engaged in producing from it (serfs, slaves and free peasantry). In modern industrial societies , factories, offices, machinery and the wealth or capital needed to buy them have become more important. The two main classes consist of those who own the new means of production - industrialists or capitalists - and those who earn their living by selling their labour to them - the working class or, in the term Marx used for them the Proletariat. (Giddens, 2013)
Class systems are fluid.
Unlike other types of strata, classes are not established by legal or religious provisions.
Class positions are in some part achieved.
An individual's class is not simply given at birth, as is the case with other types of stratification systems. Social mobility - movement upwards and downwards in the class structure - is more common than in other types.
Class is economically based.
Classes are created in economic differences between groups of individuals - inequalities in the possession of material sources.
Class systems are large scale and impersonal.
Class systems operate mainly through large-scale, impersonal associations such as exist between businesses and their employees.
Does becoming more wealthy change your class?
What evidence is there from around the world that, in time, social class is likely to become the dominant form of stratification in all countries? Given what we know about other forms of stratification, on balance, would this be a positive or negative development?
What is Social
The term '
' refers to the movement of individuals and groups between socio-economic positions. (Giddens, 2013)
means movement up or down the socio-economic scale.
Those who gain in property, income or status are said to be
Those who move in the opposite direction are
In modern societies there is also a great deal of
, which refers to geographical movement between neighbourhoods, towns or regions.
There are, broadly, two ways of looking at social mobility. First we can look at individual careers - how far people move up or down the social scale in the course of their working lives. This is called
Alternatively, we can analyse how far children enter the same type of occupation as their parents or grandparents. Mobility across generations is called
and Open Society
Is social mobility an indicator of a more open and equal society?
'We internalise our oppression and (unless encouraged to do otherwise) Accept the destiny that the system holds in store for us' (Freire, 1996)
What is your role as an informal educator - more specifically how neutral are you in your inter-action with young people?
You owed £15,000 in 2010
it's estimated that by 2017 it will be £23,000
What is anti-discriminatory practice
and; How do you apply it in your work with young people
Let's have a look at this...
What is Prejudice?
What is Discrimination?
An opinion or judgement formed without considering the relevant facts or arguments; a biased and intolerant attitude towards particular people or social groups; an opinion or attitude which is rigidly and irrationally maintained even in the face of strong contradictory evidence; a rigid form of thinking based on stereotypes and discrimination (Thompson, 2012)
Unfair or unequal treatment of individuals or groups based on an actual or perceived difference; Prejudicial behaviour acting against the interests of those people who characteristically tend to belong to relatively powerless groups within the social structure (women, ethnic minorities, old or disabled people and members of the working class in general). Discrimination is therefore a matter of social formation as well as individual or group behaviour. (Thompson, 2012)
If you are not part of the
you must be part of the
P refers to the personal or psychological; it is the individual level of thoughts, feelings, attitudes and actions. It also refers to practice, individual workers interacting with individual [young people], and prejudice, the inflexibility of mind which stands in the way of fair and non-judgemental practice. Our thoughts, feelings and attitudes about particular groups in society will , to a certain degree at least, be shaped by our experiences at a personal level. (Thompson, 2012)
C refers to the cultural level of shared ways of seeing, thinking and doing. It relates to the commonalities - values and patterns of thought and behaviour, an assumed consensus about what is right and what is normal; it produces conformity to social norms, and comic humour acts as a vehicle for transmitting and reinforcing this culture. It is therefore primarily a matter of shared meanings. It includes conventional notions of culture, such as religion, belief systems and nationality, but goes beyond these. The cultural level is a complex web of taken-for -granted assumptions or 'unwritten rules'. Culture is very influential in determining what is perceived as 'normal' in any given set of circumstances. (Thompson, 2012)
S refers to the structural level, the network of social divisions and the power relations that are so closely associated with them; it also relates to the ways in which oppression and discrimination are 'institutionalized' (firmly established through patterns of thought, language and behaviour) and thus 'sewn in' to the fabric of society. It denotes the wider level of social forces, the socio political dimension of interlocking patterns of power and influence. (Thompson, 2012)
Neil Thompson - Anti Discriminatory Practice 5th Edition - Sage
Kate Sapin - Essential Skills for Youth Work Practic 2nd Edition - Palgrave macmillan
The Equality Review
In recent weeks we have looked at:
Political Power & Oppression
& Anti-discriminatory practice
Born to a poor white or Pakistani family
More likely to experience poor home learning environment
Born to an ethnic minority family
Less likely to take up pre-school provision
Being a Black-Caribbean, Pakistani or Bangladeshi male student
More likely to experience decline in educational attainment between 7 & 11
Being a Gypsy, Roma or Traveller child
More likely to experience poor educational attainment
Being lesbian, gay or bisexual
Being Pakistani or Bangladeshi NEET
More likely to experience poor employment prospects
Being a Pakistani or Bangladeshi woman
Much more likely to be out of work
Becoming a mother
Becoming old, retiring or suffering bereavement
More likely to suffer from social exclusion and poorer quality of life
But we cannot see these areas without also looking at Equality
What Equality legislation or 'commissions' can you think of
The Equality and Human Rights Commission
was formed and took over the mandates of:
CRE - Commission for racial equality
DRC - Disability rights commission
EOC - Equal opportunities commission
In groups discuss and agree a definition of equality
The Equality Review defined it this way
An equal society protects and promotes equal, real freedom and substantive opportunity to live in the ways people value and would choose, so that everyone can flourish
An equal society recognises people's different needs, situations and goals and removes barriers that limit what people can do and can be
But what does equality or lack of it mean? Let's have a look at this...
Educational potential less likely to be realised
or put another way
OC+OP+OC+OP = ?
If we had a fairer redistribution of wealth would we have a more equal society
Inequality by domain some facts and figures:
In higher education, more than half of all students are now female compared to one-third in 1970/71
The number of women in the work force has increased by over a third in the last 30 years
The hourly gender pay gap for full-time women workers is 17%; the gap for part-time women workers is more than double this - 38%. Women's average income in retirement is 57% of the average for men
It is estimated that one in four women experiences domestic violence. About 100 women each year die as a result of violence from a current or former partner.
- In 2004/5 29% of households which include one or more disabled children and 35% of households with at least one disabled adult fell into the bottom income quintile compared to 22% of households with no disabled members
- Disabled 16 year olds are twice as likely to be out of work, education or training as their non-disabled peers (15% compared to 7%) 13% of disabled adults of working age lack qualifications compared to 9% of their non-disabled peers.
In 2005, over 95% of students from all ethnic groups achieved at least one pass at GCSE except for Traveller and Gypsy/Roma children (70% and 83% respectively)
Black Africans and Indians are over-represented among under-graduates in higher education, while Pakistanis and Bangladeshis are under represented. Black Caribbean women showed higher participation rates than their male counterparts in both 2000 and 2004
The average weekly net earnings of Bangladeshi men are currently about half of those of White men. Indian men are the only non-White group to earn more, on average, than White men
Compared to the White population Black people are more than five times as likely to be a victim of crime. Pakistani and Bangladeshi people are more than ten times as likely to be a victim of crime
Age discrimination is the most commonly experienced form of discrimination, with 29% of adults reporting experiences of age discrimination
The highest unemployment rates are in the young age groups
More than one in five pensioners live in relative poverty
Sexual orientation and Transgender
Lesbian and gay adults reported that over four in five (82%) had been subjected to name-calling at school, while over half (60%) reported being hit or kicked. Over half (53%) had contemplated self-harm as a result of bullying, and two in five (40%) had attempted suicide on at least one occasion
A Stonewall survey of secondary school teachers found that four in five (82%) of them were aware of incidents of verbal homophobic bullying. One in four (26%) knew of physical homophobic bullying. However, only 6% of schools had anti-bullying policies that dealt specifically with LGB issues.
Let's look at equality issues through life stages
The Ten Dimensions of Equality
Standard of living
Productive and valued activities
Individual, family and social life
Participation, influence and voice
Identity, expression and self-respect
If we described these as capabilities (our ability to) what would they be with examples?
The capability to be alive
Avoiding premature mortality through disease, neglect, injury or suicide
To be protected from arbitrary denial of life
The capability to live in physical security
Be free from violence including sexual, domestic and identity based violence
be free from cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment
be protected from physical or sexual abuse
go out, and to use public spaces safely and securely, without fear
The capability to be healthy
Attain the highest possible standard of physical and mental health, including sexual and reproductive health
Access timely and impartial information about health and healthcare options
Access healthcare, including non-discrimination in access to healthcare
The capability to be knowledgeable, to understand and reason, and to have the skills to participate in society
attain the highest possible standard of knowledge, understanding and reasoning
be fulfilled intellectually
access education, training and lifelong learning that meets individual needs
The capability to enjoy a comfortable standard of living, with independence and security
enjoy and adequate and secure standard of living including nutrition, clothing, housing, warmth, social security, social services and utilities
have personal mobility, and access to transport and public services
have choice and control over where you live and how you live
The capability to engage in productive and valued activities
undertake part time work
care for others
have rest, leisure and respite including holidays
choose a balance between paid work, care and leisure on an equal basis with others
work in just and favourable conditions, including health and safety, fair treatment during pregnancy and maternity, and fair renumeration
The capability to enjoy individual, family and social life
develop as a person
develop your moral outlook
formulate and pursue goals and objectives for yourself
hope for the future
develop and maintain self respect, self esteem, and self confidence
access emotional support
The capability to participate in decision making, have a voice and influence
participate in decision making
participate in the formulation of government policy, locally and nationally
assemble peacefully with others
participate in the local community
The capability of being and expressing yourself, and having self respect
have freedom of conscience, belief and religion
have freedom of cultural identity
have freedom of expression (so long as it doesn't cause significant harm to others)
The capability of knowing you will be protected and treated fairly by the law
know you will be treated with equality and non-discrimination before the law
be secure that the law will protect you from intolerant behaviour
be free from arbitrary arrest and detention
have fair conditions of detention
have the right to a fair trial
Reading: Fairness and Freedom - The final report of the Equalities Review (2007)
What do we mean when we talk about risk and young people?
Coleman and Hagell (2007) defined it this way:
:...these are factors that contribute to poor outcomes for young people. Some examples might include poverty, deprivation, illness or dysfunctional family relationships.
: This applies to potentially harmful behaviour such as having unsafe sex, misusing/abusing substances, or taking part in anti-social activities
Young people at risk
: This term is used to refer to those who are potentially vulnerable, such as those who are subject to abuse or neglect, or those in custody or care.
The concepts of risk as they apply to adolescence
Early studies into risk and young people tended to focus on only one factor such as poverty, but later studies have recognised that risk factors tend to cluster or co-occur.
In your groups discuss and agree the factors that may contribute to 'increased' risk from:
The individual perspective
Thus, parents living in poverty are likely to have higher rates of depression and other mental disorders, as well as being less effective in their parenting behaviour. In such circumstances adult depression, parenting behaviour and financial hardship all impact on the young person in a cumulative fashion.
Individual factors: Anxious temperament, low intelligence, poor health, hyper-activity, limited attention span, low frustration tolerance.
Family factors: Parental ill health, parental conflict, parental involvement in crime, harsh or erratic discipline, loss of a parent due to death or divorce, disruptive siblings.
Community factors: Economic disadvantage, poor housing, quality of schooling and other services, crime rate, level of substance abuse, lack of community role models.
What about Protection and Protective factors
When we think about young people being 'protected' from risk what do we mean?
John Brynner puts it:
Protective factors work on the more malleable components of development, reflecting the different kinds of resources that may help a child to resist adversity. The comprise the emotional, educational, social and economic influences on the child's life, operating singly, or more usually, in interaction with each other. (Brynner, 2001, p.286)
Individual attributes: Good intellectual skills, positive temperament, positive views of self.
Family attributes: High warmth, cohesion, high expectations, parental involvement.
Community attributes: Good schools, neighbourhood resources such as sports facilities, low levels of crime, strong social networks, adequate housing.
What about coping?
Emotion-focused coping and problem-focused coping
The function of both types of coping is to modify the relation between the stressor and the individual, but in problem focuse coping the individual attempts to alter, reduce or get rid of the stress, while in emotion-focussed coping there is an attempt to change the emotional state, such as anxiety, which is created by the the stressor.
Resilience, what is it?
Is it a personality trait?
Is it a process of adjustment?
Does it continue for life, are we pre-disposed to be resilient?
Is it limited to a response to a set of circumstances?
Olsson et al. (2003) in their review of resilience make an important point when they indicate that resilience can apply to both processes and to outcomes, and that it is essential to keep these two things distinct. Thus the concept can be used to consider the types of behaviour, the psycho-social outcomes, seen in young people exposed to adversity...On the other hand studies that look at processes are more likely to be interested in the way that risk and protective factors interact.
Implications for practice
1. As might be expected, there are many implications for practice stemming from the material reviewed in this chapter. First, it is important to distinguish different meanings of the concept of risk. There are risk factors which might contribute to poor outcomes, such as poverty, illness, or abuse, and then there are young people who are at risk, referring to those who are vulnerable or who face significant adversity. There are also young people who are involved in risk behaviour, usually understood as behaviour that is potentially harmful or damaging, such as engaging in unsafe sex or binge drinking.
2. When considering young people under stress or faced with risk factors, there are four components to take into account. These are, first, the nature of the risk or stressor, then the internal resources of the individual, then the type of social support available, and then finally the coping process itself. From a different perspective, both risk and protective factors can be classified as being located in the individual, the family or the community.
3. Major studies of risk and resilience show that, in spite of significant adversity, there are those who are able to manage the risks and reach adulthood without being too badly affected. These studies show that the distinction between those who cope and those who do not has to do with whether there
are important protective factors in place. One of the most influential of these is the presence of one key adult during childhood and adolescence.
4. There are differences in coping processes according to age, gender and ethnicity. Emotion-focussed coping increases as young people move through adolescence, whilst boys and girls display very different coping strategies. Boys are more likely to use active coping, but they are also more likely to deny the problem, or to withdraw from stress. Girls, on the other hand, are more likely to use social support as a means of coping. In terms of ethnicity, it is clear that the context is critical in determining how coping skills develop. Different ethnic groups are very much influenced by the family and the environment in their choice of coping strategies.
5. Some of the central theoretical concepts represented by this book should be noted. How young people cope with development during adolescence will depend on the nature of the changes they experience, the timing and extent of these changes, and the synchronicity of their occurrence. The reciprocal nature of relationships has been emphasised, as has the importance of understanding that there are no simple yes or no answers to some of the key questions about this stage of development.
6. Finally, this book embraces a strengths-based perspective on adolescence. Young people take their development into their own hands. They make choices and select options all the time, and thus notions such as proactive coping, the development of competence, resilience and the building of connectedness are all central to our understanding of adolescence. Young people have skills, resources and enthusiasm to offer to the adult world. They are agents in their own development, a notion that is at the heart of ‘The nature of adolescence’.
References & further reading
Why is community profiling important
It helps us to understand the impact of Social Policy on communities, including ourselves
Community profiling enables us to, and is a method of, understanding the needs of a community
Mapping as a tool for community profiling
The methods you will be using can be split into two types 'quantitative' and 'qualitative' but what is the difference?
Quantitative research is often referred to as hard data; these are often statistics e.g. the national census as opposed to 'qualitative' research (soft or secondary data), which will give you an insight into how people may feel about the area.
Mission entirely possible
You will have 30 minutes in your teams (45 if you include the break), to find out as much quantitative informtaion as possible about the area around the college. For example:
What borough are we in?
What are the neighbouring boroughs?
What are the demographics?
How many schools? Primary/Secondary?
You will need to provide statistical information which means %'s In order to do this you will need an overall figure to provide percentage figures.
Your team will then present their findings.
Prizes will be awarded, so go the extra mile, find out something unusual, interesting etc.