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Transcript of Macromolecules
Very large organic molecules, usually polymers, composed of hundreds or thousands of atoms
*There are 2 types of nucleic acids
deoxyribonucleic acid or DNA
ribonucleic acid or RNA
*Nucleic acids are the molecules that code the genetic information of organisms
*The 2 acids are used in repair, reproduction and protein synthesis.
DNA and RNA are polymers made up of monomers called nucleotides
Organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
Used for structural material and as sources of energy
Simple sugars containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Common monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, and galactose
Share the same chemical formula but have different physical properties
Sources of Proteins
Properties and Functions
Denaturation of Proteins
*Shaped like a twisted double helix and is composed of long strands of altering sugars and phosphate groups
*Has nitrogenous bases (adenine, thymine, guanine and cytosine)
*Contains the genetic information necessary for the production of other cell components and for the reproduction of life
*Composed of nucleotides
*Plays a major role in protein synthesis
*Involved in the decoding, transcription and translation of the genetic code to produce proteins
*Nucleotides contain 3 components
-5 carbon sugar
Any class of nitrogenous, organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms. They are composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
They make up horns, hair, muscles, and many biological catalysts.
Many proteins are formed by a linkage of monomers called amino acids.
R groups give proteins different shapes, which allow proteins to carry out many different activities in living things.
Proteins are composed of one or more polypeptides, making some proteins very large molecules, containing hundreds of amino acids.
Often long proteins, such as those, are bent and fold as a result of reactions, such as hydrogen bonding between individual amino acids
Protein shape can also be affected by conditions, such as temperature and the type of solvent in which the protein is dissolved.
Subgroups of proteins are fibrous and globular proteins.
Metabolic Growth Regulator
Control of Physiological Functions
Toxicity of Foreign Proteins
By: Julie Fan
*Primarily the breast
Beans and Peas*
Nuts and Seeds*
*Mozzerella a.nd Cottage Cheese
*Black beans, Lima beans, Soy beans,
split peas, etc.
*Almonds, Cashews, Peanuts,
Pumpkin, Sesame, Sunflower,
Watermelon Seeds, etc.
(fuel for cells)
There are 20 different types of amino acids, which all share a basic structure.
All amino acids contain a central carbon atom, covalently bonded to 4 other atoms or functional groups.
The main difference between the different amino acids is the R group. (R group can be complex or simple)
Amino acids are c0mmonly in a simplified way such as balls.
Two amino acids bond to form a dipeptide. This bond is known as a peptide bond, and release a water molecule.
Amino acids often bond to form long chains called polypeptides.
About half of the energy used by the body is provided by glucose
- A single hydrogen bonds at one site
- A carboxyl group, -COOH, bonds at another
- A amino group, -NH2, bonds at a third site.
- A side chain, R group, bonds at a fourth site.
found in produce, grains, and foods with added sugar:
dried/candied fruits and vegetables
Has a sweet taste
(sugar): reactant of fructose and glucose
found in healthy/ nonhealthy foods:
High in fructose:
Blueberries (very high)
Low in fructose:
Enzymes are RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts.
They are essential for the functioning of any cell.
Many enzymes are proteins.
Enzyme reactions depend on a physical fit between the enzyme molecule and its specific substrate, the reactant being catalyzed.
Enzymes have folds known as an active site, with a shape that allows the substrate to fit in.
An enzyme only works on a specific substrate because only that substrate fits into the active site.
The linking of an enzyme and its substrate cause the shape of the enzyme to change, which weaken chemical bonds in the substrate, reducing its activation energy
Because the enzyme itself is unchanged, it can be used many times.
After the reaction, the enzyme releases the products
An enzyme may not work if its environment is changed, such cases being a change in temperature or pH, which causes the shape of the enzyme and substrate to change.
If such a change occurs, the reaction that the enzyme would have catalyzed cannot happen.
Stored in the form of
consisting of hundreds of glucose molecules stuck together in a complex chain
Glucose is stored in the form of the polysaccharide
Two basic forms, either in highly-branched chains or long, unbranched ones
Reacts with glucose to make
A fundamental & structural substance for cells and cell walls
Can be found in milk, whey, and the human body
(composed of three or more monosaccharides)
Plants also produce the polysaccharide
gives plants strength and stiffness
Thousands of glucose monomers in cellulose molecules create long, straight links that can be broken down by hydrolysis
Two monosaccharides that combine (in a condensation reaction) to make a double sugar (disaccharides)
Three most important disaccharides:
sucrose, lactose, and maltose
Optical Property- absorption of light at higher energies due to the surface structure, composition, and topography of the surface of a protein molecule.
Colloidal- finely divided particles are dispersed in continuous medium in a way that prevents the particle from filtering easily or settling rapidly
Solubility- the solubility of the protein depends on the pH of the solvent.
Amphoteric Nature- able to react as both an acid and a base according to the pH of their surroundings.
Denaturation of Proteins- changes in the solubility of individual protein molecules due to change in structure when exposed to heat resulting in the entrapment of solvent water in a semi-solid gel structure. (like in gelatin)
Storage- stores mineral ions such as potassium and iron, and regulates and guards against effects on the body.
Transport- carries vital materials like oxygen to cells in the body.
Structural- forms the connective framework of the muscles, bones, tendons, skin, and cartilage. Also, proteins are the main structural components in hair, nails, teeth and skin.
Metabolic Growth Regulator- regulates metabolic processes in the cells, including liver functions, stomach digestion, blood clotting, and converting glycogen to glucose.
Control of Physiological Functions- regulates the strength and speed of heart and muscle contractions, absorption of calcium from the intestinal walls, and stimulates endocrine glands to secrete epinephrine and insulin to regulate blood sugar levels, etc.
Catalytic Activity- reducing required activation energy in foods.
Hormonal- hormones are protein-based chemicals usually transported through the blood, and act as chemical messengers that transmit signals from one cell to another.
Toxicity of Foreign Proteins- found in antibodies and attacks bacteria and foreign invaders to render them inactive.
a-glucose + a-fructose
a-glucose + a-glucose
a-glucose + b-galactose
any of a group of organic compounds that are greasy to the touch, insoluble in water, and soluble in alcohol and ether
Complex Carbohydrates: (complex chains)
Simple Carbohydrates: (simple chains)
2% or regular milk
Contains hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon
Fibrous And Globular Proteins
Fribrous protiens are proteins that possess an extended, fiber-like structure and are important structural building-blocks.
Fribrous proteins can be broken down into keratins, collagens, a elastins.
Globular proteins are compact, vaguely spherical-shaped proteins, which include all non-structural types of proteins.
Globular proteins either are or are key components of enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and some structural proteins.
Keratins- an insoluble, sulfur-containing fibrous protein, which makes up hair, fingernails, and bird feathers.
Collagens- the fibrous protein that is the main component connective tissue. It can be found in tendons, skin, bone, cartilage, and ligaments.
Elastins- a fibrous protein that coils and recoils like a spring within the elastic fibers of connective tissue. It is responsible for the elasticity of the skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, intestines, tendons, and ligaments
Enzymes- biological catalysts with about 1,000 different varieties found in the human body.
Hormones- any substance that is produced in tiny amounts in one part of an organism and then transported to other parts where it has a physiological effect. They control the rate at which reactions proceed.
Antibodies- a special kind of blood protein secreted by B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell in the immune system. They circulate in the bloodstream to attack any foreign substances.
Structural Proteins- globular proteins form part of the cell membrane, which has a structural role and a role in transporting ions in and out a cell.