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Remix Culture & Copyright in Asia
Transcript of Remix Culture & Copyright in Asia
Bruns, A. (2007) "The Future Is User-Led: The Path towards Widespread Produsage."
Lessig, Lawrence (2004) "Free Culture"
O'Brien, D. and Fitzgerald, B. (2006) “Mashups, Remixes and Copyright Law.”
Clay Shirky: “The moment we are living through represents the largest increase in expressive capability in human history.”
Many -to-many communication
“The Internet is the first medium in history that has native support for groups and conversation at the same time. The phone gave us the one-to-one model and television, radio, magazines, books, gave us the one-to-many model. But the Internet has finally given us a many-to-many model. For the first time, media is natively good at supporting conversations.”
"As recently as 2001, most of the media content that was available for public consumption was produced by professionals. Those days are over, never to return."
Media consumers are no longer disconnected from each other. Former consumers of media content are now all
of media content as well.
: e.g. blogs & microblogs, discussion forums, social networks
Open news & citizen journalism
: e.g. OhMyNews, GlobalVoicesOnline
: Wikipedia, HowTo.com
: e.g. Delicious, Digg, Reddit, LinkHay
Reviews & social shopping
: e.g. TripAdvisor, HungryNoWhere, Amazon, RottenTomatoes
: e.g. photos, videos, music, illustration, etc.
a culture which is dominated by amateur creators instead of professional creators – users and consumers who are no longer willing to be merely passive receptors of content, but who are beginning to take on the role of producers – to sample, modify, remix and mashup content, in order to produce something which is distinctive of their own social and creative innovation.
a set of exclusive rights granted by a state to the creator of an original work of media for a limited period of time in exchange for public disclosure of the work.
What is copyright?
The primary purpose of copyright law is NOT mainly to protect the authors/creators.
It’s main purpose is to
promote creativity and innovation
throughout a society.
How would its production have been different?
How would its distribution have been different?
How would its use or re-use have been different?
In your teams, find an example of online discourse in the public sphere that uses remix as a means of making its point.
Traditional value chain vs New value chain
New Value Chain
how would this content have been traditionally made without UGC?
Advances in computational processing power & speed
Increasing digitization of all media content
Can make infinite, perfect copies
Can easily, cheaply and quickly share
Can modify it
Rise of broadband, wide internet penetration
In other words, remix is changing how people communicate.
remix culture is not only changing how people express themselves creatively, but how people express themselves to each other, period.
Four Characteristics of Produsage & User-Generated Content
Relies on the collaborative engagement of large communities of participants working on a shared project
2. Fluid roles
Relies on the fluid movement of individual produsers of content among different roles within the community and the project - typically non-hierarchical.
3. Unfinished artifacts
Artifacts in produsage and UCG are continually in development and modification - never reaching a "finished" point as with industrial products
4. Common property, individual merit
Community-developed content requires a more permissive idea toward ownership and intellectual property (IP) than for traditional, corporate content production.
Traditional Value Chain