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Chapter 2 Component - Gen Psych

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Amanda Foy

on 25 September 2018

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Transcript of Chapter 2 Component - Gen Psych

The Human Brain
Cerebral Cortex
Outer surface layer of the brain, covers all 4 lobes
Governs higher mental processes
Responsible for most complex behavior
Damage here linked to substance abuse, dementia, and suicide
Limbic System
Interconnected group of forebrain structures involved with emotions, drives, memory, and major physiological functions

Includes the following areas:

Hypothalamus
Thalamus
Controls basic drives such as hunger & thirst
Regulates body temperature
Brain's sensory switchboard
Damage can result in distorted perception of sensory information
Hippocampus
Seahorse shaped part of limbic system
Involved in forming and retrieving memories
Amygdala
Controls emotions like aggression and fear
Forebrain
Right Hemisphere
Left Hemisphere
Specialized language and analytical functions

Interprets sensation & coordinates
movement for right
side of body
Specialized for nonverbal tasks (art, music, recognizing faces)

Interpreting sensation & coordinating motor movements for left side of body
Frontal lobes
Largest lobes
Involved in thinking, personality, voluntary movement, emotion,& memory
Receive and coordinate messages from other lobes
Motor control
Speech Production
Higher functions
Motor Cortex
Part of frontal lobes
Controls voluntary movement
All motor controls begin here
Somatosensory Cortex
Part of parietal lobes
Receive sensory messages
Parietal lobes
Receive & interpret bodily sensations
Pressure, pain, touch, temperature, location of body parts
Occipital lobes
Vision & visual perception
Visual Cortex - receives & processes visual information
Temporal lobes
Hearing, language comprehension, memory, & some emotional control
Auditory Cortex
Top area of the temporal lobes
Receives sensory information from the ears
Broca's area
Lower part of lower-left frontal lobe
Controls speech production
Wernicke's area
Upper part of the left temporal lobe
Involved in language comprehension
Lobes
Damage will do WHAT?!
Motor Cortex
People who damage this area will have:
Difficulty coordinating fine motor movement
May show weakness in arms, hands, & fingers
Broca's Area
French physician Paul Broca (1865) discovered patients with damage to this area had difficulty speaking, but could comprehend written or spoken language
Deficit known as Broca's aphasia
Phineas Gage (1848)
Had a metal rod accidentally blown through much of his frontal lobe
Experienced dramatic personality changes were noted (impatience & lacking in concern for coworkers)
Eventually obtained a job driving a stagecoach, which required high level skills
Somatosensory Cortex
People who damage this area may be:
Unable to feel bodily sensations like a tap on his/her shoulder
Parietal lobes
Damage here may cause a person to:
Be unable to recognize an object he/she is feeling (like a glove, ball, etc.) or understand how the object is used
Temporal lobes
Damage to Left Temporal Lobe often results in:
Impairments in understanding language

Damage to Right Temporal Lobe often results in:
Nonverbal deficits, like difficulty recognizing songs
Wernicke's Area
German neurologist Carl Wernicke noted damage in the left temporal lobe resulted in:
Inability to understand what a person reads or hears, but person can speak quickly and easily.
Difficulty is known as Wernicke's aphasia
Occipital lobes
Damage to Visual Cortex can produce partial or complete blindness

Damage to lobes may produce "visual agnosia" - inability to combine visual parts of an object together to recognize it

Other problems with Occipital lobes may result in visual hallucinations
Corpus Callosum
Thick band of nerves that connects two hemispheres
Literally allows your right hand to know what the left hand is doing
"Split-brain" - corpus callosum is cut to reduce the spread of epileptic seizures - generally successful!
Take care of your brain...
You only get one!
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