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History of Psychology
Transcript of History of Psychology
Beginnings Sigmund Freud published 'Interpretation of Dreams' marking the beginning of Psychoanalytic Thought. Sigmund Freud He was the first to study psychology scientifically. Wilhelm Wundt opens first experimental laboratory in psychology at the University of Leipzig, Germany. He created a machine to measure the time lapse between a person hearing a sound and clicking a telegraphic key. He said he was measuring the speed of the "atoms of the mind". 1879 Edward B
Titchener Wanted to study the structural elements of the mind. He did this through self-reflective introspection. This way of studying did not work out because it required highly intelligent people with good vocabulary. 1892 He described psychology as the study of mental life. "Principles of Psychology" William James He studied the functions of thoughts and feelings which help us adapt. He admitted
into his seminar although women were not allowed at Harvard APA's first female president! 1905 1890 Mary Whiton Calkins 1892 G. Stanley Hall Founds the American Psychological Association (APA) and serves as its first president. Edward L. Thorndike Publishes findings on cats in puzzle boxes 1898 Structuralism Functionalism 1900 Psychodynamic Theory Ivan Pavlov Published the first studies on Classical Conditioning. 1905 1913 John B. Watson Published 'Psychology as a Behaviorist Views It' marking the beginnings of Behavioral Psychology. In contrast to psychoanalysis, behaviorism focuses on observable and measurable behavior. 1920 and Rosalie Rayner published the Little Albert experiments, demonstrating that fear could be classically conditioned. Jean Piaget Cognitive Theory Published 'The Moral Judgment of Children' beginning his popularity as the leading theorist in cognitive development. 1932 1938 B.F. Skinner "The Behavior of Organisims" Publishes his studies on conformity. He proves the importance of social influence on decisions Solomon Asch 1949 Socio-cultural Theory Humanistic Theory 1952 APA The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) was published by The American Psychiatric Association marking the beginning of modern mental illness classification. 1954 Abraham Maslow Publishes Motivation and Personality. He helped to found Humanistic 1956 George Miller Published the Behavioral Study of Obedience. Where he showed the influence of authority over the individual. 1963 Milgram Bandura Principles of Behavior Modification 1969 Garcia and Koelling 1966 Did studies on aversion using classical conditioning. Phineas Gage suffered brain damage when an iron pole pierces his brain. His personality was changed but his intellect remained intact suggesting that an area of the brain plays a role in personality. Published the On the Origin of Species, detailing his view of evolution and expanding on the theory of 'Survival of the fittest.' Developed the 'Law of Effect,' arguing that "a stimulus-response chain is strengthened if the outcome of that chain is positive." Emphasizes the role of
the unconscious mind
early childhood experiences
interpersonal relationships Psychoanalysis is therapist-centered, meaning the therapist has all the answers, not the patient. Our personality is a conflict between our unconscious Id and our superego (our moral sense) and our ego (our sense of reality). Published first article on animal intelligence leading to the theory of Operant Conditioning. Edward Thorndike 1911 Psychoanalysis seemed very unscientific. Behaviorists will bring science back into psychology, even if they overdo it a little.
Behaviorism is NOT interested in the unconscious mind since it cannot be observed in a laboratory. Classical conditioning is associative learning. He trained a dog to drool to a bell. The work draws widespread attention to behaviorism and inspires laboratory research on conditioning. Operant conditioning (aka shaping) is learning through reinforcements (rewards) and punishments.
He also created the skinner box which was similar to Thorndike's but with the efficiency of never letting the animal out. John B. Watson Departed from Freudian views and developed his own theories citing Freud's inability to acknowledge religion and spirituality. His new school of thought became known as Analytical Psychology. Carl G. Jung 1913 The daughter of Sigmund Freud, published her first book, The Psychoanalytic Treatment of Children, expanding her father's ideas in the treatment of children. Anna Freud 1947 Published 'Counseling and Psychotherapy' suggesting that respect and a non-judgmental approach to therapy is the foundation for effective treatment of mental health issues. Carl Rogers 1942 Published her feministic views of psychoanalytic theory, marking the beginning of feminism. Karen Horney 1945 Published 'Childhood and Society,' where he expands Freud's Theory to include social aspects of personality development across the lifespan. Erik Erikson 1950 published 'On Becoming a Person,' marking a powerful change in how treatment for mental health issues is conducted. Carl Rogers 1961 introduced the idea of Observational Learning on the development of personality. Alfred Bandura 1963 1983 Inspired by work in mathematics and other disciplines, psychologists begin to focus on cognitive states and processes. George A. Miller's 1956 article "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two" on information processing is an early application of the cognitive approach. Introduced his theory of multiple intelligence, arguing that intelligence is something to be used to improve lives not to measure and quantify human beings. Behavioral Theory to explain human behavior and to treat people suffering from mental illnesses. Carl Rogers revolutionized talk therapy. His therapy is client-centered, where the client has all the answers instead of the therapist. Therapists treat the client with unconditional positive regard (no judgments). Focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, thought processes, problem solving, language and learning
It is the study of the mind.
Concerned with how we
retrieve information Humanism came about in the 1960s in reaction to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Humanistic psychology was instead focused on each individual’s potential and stressed the importance of growth and self-actualization. The fundamental belief of humanistic psychology was that people are innately good.We are not rats in a cage! We are not id-driven animals! We are humans with free will! Humanistic
Theory Psychodynamic Theory Behavioral Theory Behavioral Theory Socio-cultural Theory Cognitive Theory Behavioral Theory Humanistic Theory Psychology and later developed his famous Hierarchy of Needs. "Chunking" Howard Gardner Cognitive Theory Is focused on how a person’s feelings, thoughts and behaviors are influenced by the real, imagined or implied presence of others. Biological Perspective How genes combine with the environment and influence individual differences. 1951 The first drug to treat depression is authorized by the FDA