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Architecture

Mesopatamia, Egypt, Greece, Rome
by

Tera Reed

on 17 June 2013

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Transcript of Architecture

Architecture
Rome
Roman architectural revolution
Caementa (cement): Mixture of lime mortar, volcanic sand, water, & small stones
Barrel vault
Groin vault
Hemispherical dome
Egypt
This step pyramid may appear similar to a ziggurat, but it is a tomb not a temple

Most of the egyptian architecture remaining today is was dedicated to the afterlife
The major concern in Egyptian life was to ensure safety & happiness in the next life

This structure, the Pyramid of Djoser, was
composed of a series of six successively
smaller mastabas (an earlier form of tomb),
one on top of another.

Egyptians developed a style of art &
architecturethat remained undisturbed for
nearly 2500 yrs.


Mesopotamia
Greek meaning “land between two rivers”
Ancient Sumerians (Sumer) - Modern day Iraq

Built ziggurats to symbolize the concept of the “sacred mountain” (height=close to heavens where the gods dwell).

Developed the “city-state”
(religion & government are one-priests have
all authority)

Ziggurats were large layered platforms which
supported temples of worship

The Tigris-Euphrates plain lacked minerals and
trees. Sumerian structures were made of
plano-convex mudbrick, not fixed with mortar
or cement.
Greece
Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its
temples and open-air theatres.
distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration

Greek architecture is defined in three categories:
Doric Order
Ionic Order
Corinthian Order

The architecture of Ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken
until the present day.

We see this in Renaissance to Neoclassical to present
day Washington D.C.
Architecture
The art and science of designing and constructing buildings for practical, aesthetic, & symbolic purposes

Architecture is frequently overlooked as an art form, because of its constant presence, as well as, necessity

Three Essential Components in Architecture:
Supporting skeleton or frame
Outer shell or skin
Operating systems
heating, plumbing, electrical wiring, air circulation, etc…
Dry Masonry
Stones piled up on top of one another
early architects used whatever materials were available

Post & Lintel / Beam
Vertical posts or columns support a beam
Stonehenge
Keystone
Final stone atop arch that creates continuous load from one side of the arch to the other

Taj Mahal
Pointed Arch & Vault
Similar to rounded arch, but weight comes almost straight down
the sides of a pointed arch may “bow” and may require a buttress

Buttresses-were designed to support higher and wider arches

Cathedral (Duomo) Orvieto, Umbria
Involves the design of communities and/or regions
landscaping, gardens, small neighborhoods, and urban cities

Environmental Design
One of Wright's most famous private residences it was designed according to Wright's desire to place the occupants close to the natural surroundings, with a stream and waterfall running under part of the building. Wright wanted the new residences to live with the waterfalls, to make them part of their everyday lives.
Fallingwater, Mill Run, Pennsylvania (1937)
Sumerian ziggurat
Cuneiform script is one of the earliest known systems of writing. Began as a system of pictographs.
The Sumerians also developed the arch, which enabled them to develop a strong type of roof called a dome.
Mesoamerican Pyramids
The most prolific builders of these step pyramids were the Pre-Columbian civilizations. The remains of step pyramids can be found throughout the Mayan cities of the Yucatán, as well as in Aztec and Toltec architecture.
Indonesia
The Giza pyramid complex
The pyramids were built to serve both as grave sites and also as a way to make their names last forever.
Pyramids were originally finished or coated in limestone
Khufu’s base is 13 acres and orig. 480’ high (now 450’ H)
Khafre's (next to his fathers) appears taller, but is smaller
Guarded by the Great
Sphinx
Menkaure's is the smallest.
Karnak
Karnak Temple Complex is a vast open-air museum and the largest ancient religious site in the world.

Construction of temples started in the Middle Kingdom and continued through to Ptolemaic times. Approximately 30 pharaohs contributed to the buildings, enabling it to reach a size, complexity, and diversity not seen elsewhere.
Were used during the mummification process to store and preserve the internal organs of their owner for the afterlife.
Canopic jar
Is the largest monolith statue in the world, standing 241 ft. long, 63 ft wide, and 66.34 ft high.
Man was perceived as being the sublime product nature.The natural elements were personified as gods of completely human form.

The home of the 12 gods was thought to be Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece.
Mount Olympus
Caryatid is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head.
Parthenon
The Parthenon is a temple on dedicated to the maiden goddess Athena
Stood 38’ tall
Parthenon was pretty much built around it
Spear and shield, Nike on her hand (victory)
Parthenon (Nashville, TN)
Based on the story of a Corinthian maiden who had died.
A nurse placed basket with goblets and tile atop over the
maidens grave just happened to be over acanthus root.
The root grew in springtime out/under tile.

Corinthian Order
Theater
Polykleitos The Younger Theater
-387’ dia., 55 rows of seats, 12,000 capacity, still used today

Temple of Hera II, Paestum, Italy, ca. 460 BCE
Ampitheatre
Amphitheater means “double theater”
It is two Greek theater put together
Concrete makes this possible
Greeks had to build into the side of a mountain
Romans built aqueducts to carry water from the
mountains to the city
This aqueduct carried approx. 100 gal. per person per day from a source 30 miles away
Aquaduct
Consists of a series of channels
within a continuous decline
The large arches span 82’
Carried water, people, and traffic

The Colosseum
Originally The Flavian
Amphitheater

16 stories high
Built from concrete and brick
Consists of system of barrel vault and corridors
76 gates to allow 50,000 spectators
Completed in 80 B.C.E.
Opening consisted of 100 days of games
1000’s of lives were lost, many Christians, infamous for that reason
The Pantheon
Result of concrete technology
20’ thick walls
Basically, it’s a cylinder capped with a dome
It was temple dedicated to all of the Gods
The oculus or eye in the top of the dome was 30’ dia.
provides daylight and ventilation
The interior is 143’ dia. and 143 high = globe
Roman Forum
Is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome
Catacombs
Underground burial places under Rome
A response to overcrowding
and shortage of land, but
housed the escaping
Christians
There is an estimated 70-90
miles of catacombs with approximately 4 million plus bodies
How were the pyramids of egypt really built
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