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Military Alliances During the Cold War
Transcript of Military Alliances During the Cold War
DQ- What was the role of military alliances, including NATO and SEATO, in deterring communist aggression and maintaining security during the Cold War?
Es1- What was the main purpose of the Cold War and who was involved? Military Alliances During the Cold War The Cold War was a conflict between two superior nations, the US and the Soviet Union (USSR). This war involved no shedding of blood nor the use of arms and weapons but the quest for world power.
Throughout this time period, the conflict included military coalitions, espionage, weapons development, invasions, propaganda, and competitive technological development, which included the space race. The conflict included costly defense spending... nuclear arms race.
This war was handled with the use of economic power, political propaganda and who has the best toys... bluffing.
"In such a hostile atmosphere, no single party was entirely to blame for the Cold War; in fact, some historians believe it was inevitable"
.http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war Es2- What role was played by NATO during the Cold War? Established in 1949 as a military alliance for mutual protection, NATO mission was to prevent nuclear war. Originally NATO consisted of 12 countries: the United States, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, the Netherlands, Norway, Luxembourg, and Iceland.
All countries of NATO agreed to come to the aid of any member who was attacked or confronted, from any territorial expansion by the USSR and the Warsaw Pact.
In response to NATO, Eastern European nations formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955. The Warsaw Pact was A military alliance of communist nations in Eastern Europe.
After the USSR dissolved in the late 1980s, NATO's relationship with Russia thawed. In 2002, the NATO-Russia Council was formed to allow NATO members and Russia to partner on common security issues.
NATO is still strong today and includes some formerly communist countries
(Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic).
Advantages of a joining NATO are:
1. NATO helps create defensive programs for countries (Helps a small country create an effective army.)
2. NATO helps countries with economical difficulties (If the country is bankrupt NATO will give necessary supplies.)
3. Countries have a voice in European politics (If Europe was to make a big decision , the members can have a vote/say
in the matter.)
4. Countries will receive help in case of military emergencies (If there was an attack on the country, NATO would supply aid and equipment.)
NATO is still strong today and includes some formerly communist countries (Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic). Es3- What role did the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization play during the Cold War? Established in 1954 the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization was an international organization for collective defense.
SEATO was a military alliance to offer protection to democracies in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization intended to prevent the spread of communism through military attacks.
Member countries including representatives of Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the United States were all apart of SEATO.
SEATO was generally considered a failure organization because internal conflicts and dispute hindered general use of the SEATO military; "Hey we're going to war", "that's cool, but I'm using the bathroom and it looks like I'm going to be here for a while."
However, SEATO funded cultural and educational programs which left long-standing effects in Southeast Asia. SEATO was dissolved on 30 of June 1977 after many members lost interest and withdrew.
The different between SEATO and NATO was members did not pledge military assistance against an attack. (you go to war, while I'll be using the restroom).
Es4- What was the Warsaw Pact?
The Warsaw Pact was a military alliance of communist nations in eastern Europe (Eastern Bloc) during the Cold War. This alliance was also known as a mutual defense organization to put the Soviet Union in command of the armed forces of the member states.
Seeing the Western nations (Western Bloc) form a strong alliance (NATO) in May 1955, the Soviet Union and its allies met in Warsaw, Poland, where they signed a treaty agreeing that they, too, would mutually defend one another... Kind of like NATO
Organized in 1955 in answer to NATO, the Warsaw Pact included Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.
Headquartered in Moscow, the organization sought to quell any democratic uprisings in Warsaw Pact nations, due to discouraging attacks from Western bloc/NATO countries.
In 1990 the Soviet Union's control of the Eastern Bloc weakened as democracy movements in member nations occrured. As the former Eastern bloc countries underwent relatively peaceful revolutions, Warsaw Pact members began announcing their intentions to withdraw from the organization.
East Germany withdrew when it was reunified with West Germany, and the restored Germany joined NATO (in 1990). The Warsaw Pact was dissolved by the remaining member nations in 1991. Es5- What is the purpose of NATO today? NATO further expanded its role to include the war on terrorism after 9/11, which was considered an attack on the U.S.
NATO's highest priority is its mission in Afghanistan, which deploys 84,000 troops from not only the NATO member countries, but also at least a dozen non-members. However, NATO itself admits that "Peacekeeping has become at least as difficult as peacemaking."
As a result, NATO has developed alliances throughout the world. In the age of globalization, transatlantic peace has become a worldwide effort that extends beyond military might alone. Arms Race- A competition between nations to expand their stock pile of weapons and armaments in order to gain a military superiority over other nations.
Collective Security- Policy in which nations agree to protect one another against attack.
Containment- A policy of checking the expansion or influence of a hostile power or ideology, as by the creation of strategic alliances or support of client states in areas of conflict or unrest.
Domino Theory- A theory that if one nation comes under Communist control, then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control.
Iron Curtain- The "boundary" that divided Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe from Western European nations not under Soviet domination.
Marshall Plan- European Recovery Program, project instituted at the Paris Economic Conference (July, 1947) to foster economic recovery in certain European countries after World War II.
Satellite Nation- A country dominated politically and economically by another nation, especially by the Soviet Union during the cold war.
Sputnik- The Soviet Union launched the first man-made earth satellite.
Truman Doctrine- The purpose of the this document was to aid countries that were the targets of Communist expansionism.
38th Parallel- A parallel of latitude that in East Asia roughly demarcates North and South Korea. The line was chosen by U.S military planners at the Potsdam Conference, in July 1945, as an army boundary, north of which the Soviet Union was to accept the surrender of the Japanese forces in Korea and south of which the Americans were to accept the Japanese surrender. The line was intended as a temporary division Vocabulary