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Canadian Soldiers Dig In

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Joananananananan

on 21 October 2014

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Transcript of Canadian Soldiers Dig In

Canadian Soldiers Dig In
By: Jacky Huang, Joan Chang, Lily Zhao
Late June of 1914 was said to be the spark of World War I.
When?
The Soldiers had a hard lifestyle at the front lines, mainly because the front lines were always under attack thus making it harder to survive. You would have to always be ready to fight and defend yourself with any upcoming attacks.

A normal day at the front lines were basically fighting, fighting, defending, fighting and more fighting. This would go on and on, from sunrise to sunset.
What?
The major battlefields took place in Northern France, Serbia, Northeastern Italy and Belgium in fields that were very close to sea level.
Where?
"The British Empire, a Bad Thing or a Good Thing?" Relentless 4 Life. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://relentlesslife.wordpress.com/2013/04/25/the-british-empire-a-bad-thing-or-a-good-thing/>.
Canada participated in the war because at that time, Canada was still under the British Empire. When Britain declared war on Germany, so did the entire empire. Since British was part of the war, Canada was obligated to also join in to assist the British.
Why?
Who?
Who was involved in World War I?
France
Germany
Britain
Russia
Belgium
Ottoman Empire
Austria-Hungary

Canada
Canada participated in the world war, along with the powerful nations of Europe.

The Allies, the Central Powers and countries/colonies under an empire were all involved in the Great War.
Who?
Italy
Canada
United States of America
Mexico
Brazil
Australia
China
India
Map of the World Showing the Nations at War, December 31, 1914
. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014. <http://freepages.military.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~worldwarone/WWI/TheGeographyOfTheGreatWar/images/Figure9-Page11.jpg>.
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 & Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
Canada contributed to the Great War by sending over 600,000 soldiers to Britain in World War I.
How?
What?
What happened during the war?
During the third year of war, 1916, it became obvious that the war wouldn't end soon, so both sides created a permanent trench system for the ongoing battles.
Trenches:
were zigzag shaped, to avoid the entire troop to be killed by an artillery shell
Many soldiers were sent to war, to defend their country.
Canada contributed by sending about 400 000 soldiers to Great Britain to fight along with the Allies.
Canadians fought in:
The Battle of Ypres (Belgium, 1915)
The Battle of the Somme (France, 1916)
Vimy Ridge (France. 1917)
The Battle of Passchendaele (Belgium, 1917)
Jack, Richard. The Second Battle of Ypres, 22 April to 25 May 1915. Digital image. Http://www.historymuseum.ca/. Beaverbrook Collection of War Art, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
The Second Battle of Ypres, 22 April to 25 May 1915
Canadian Soldiers Back from the Trenches during the Battle of the Somme, November 1916. Digital image. Canada at War: A Guide to Library and Archives Canada's Websites Recalling the Canadian War Experience. Library and Archives Canada, 02 Nov. 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
Canadian soldiers returning from the Battle of the Somme.
Canadians Returning from Vimy Ridge 1917, First World War. Digital image. The Battle of Vimy Ridge, 9-12 April 1917. Canadian Museum of History, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
Canadian Soldiers -Vimy Ridge
Plus many more battles.
Brooke, John Warwick. Cheshire Regiment Trench Somme 191. Digital image. Imperial War Museums, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
Stuckey, Mike. Reconstructed Yorkshire Trenches from WW1 - Sept 2003. Digital image. Panoramio. N.p., Sept. 2003. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
organized into front line, support trench and sometimes, reserved trench
these trenches were connected by communication trenches (lines for soldiers to move safely between the front-line and the support trench)
support trench included latrines, medical areas and rest areas
Trench system in world war I. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014. <http://warhorsedramaturgy.weebly.com/uploads/1/5/3/3/15331938/2682361_orig.jpg>.
and was much safer and shorter in height
("History of the First World War", 2014)
dugouts: rooms that were in the walls of the trenches
Reserve Trenches. Digital image. Canada and the First World War. George Metcalf Archival Collection, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
were 500 miles (800km) long
traveling from sea in the north (English Channel) to the border of Switzerland in the south
Langohr, Brian. Map of WWI in 1918. Digital image. The Wars Timothy Findley. N.p., 29 Oct. 2011. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
trenches had ledges on the front wall called "fire steps"
fire steps were stepped to fire rifles over the edge of the trench
Brooke, John Warwick. Cheshire Regiment Trench Somme 191. Digital image. Imperial War Museums, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
(Adam, 2006)
Cooking in the Trenches. Digital image. Canada and the First World War. George Metcalf Archival Collection, Apr. 1915. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
Life in the trenches were dangerous, filthy and horrible, affecting the soldiers physically and mentally.
Soldiers suffered many problems at the front line, such as psychological challenges, shell shock and trench foot.
Canadian soldiers cooking in the trenches
Trench Foot
Soldiers fought at Western Front, near the sea, causing the trenches to be filled with sea water. Because the fields were near sea level, the water was at knee-height. Soldiers had to stand in deep water for days. This lead to trench foot.
Trench foot is the injury of the skin, the blood vessels, and the nerves due to exposure of coldness and wetness.
Case of Trench Feet Suffered by Unidentified Soldier. Digital image. Flickr. N.p., 1917. Web. 27 Sept. 2014. <https://www.flickr.com/photos/lac-bac/4056220150/in/photostream/player>.
"trench foot." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 27 Sep. 2014. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trench foot>.
To prevent this condition, the soldiers had to dry their feet and put oil to keep the moisture out.
But that was nearly impossible to do, because there wasn't many dry spots, due to the low elevation level of the field.
Why?
Why was Canada involved?
A flooded trench during World War One. Digital image. Historywithatwist. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2014. <http://historywithatwist.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/trench1.jpg>.
Shell Shock
Shell shock: A stress disorder occurring to many soldiers engaging active combat. Has characteristics of anxiety, depression and loss of motivation.
"shell shock." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 27 Sep. 2014. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/shell shock>.
Some soldiers couldn't handle stress so they had nervous breakdowns and were unable to continue fighting.
The army did not realize this disorder, so they charged soldiers with this condition as cowards.
Shell Shock. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2014. <https://bookarahma.files.wordpress.com/2014/09/tumblr_m3fbotsra41qat09ho1_500.jpg>.
'Shell-Shock' Digital image. 'Mein Kampf': Hitler. Peter Crawford 2013, Sept. 2013. Web. 27 Sept. 2014. <http://meinkampfvol1.blogspot.ca/2013/09/hitler-der-soldat-1914-1918-hitler.html>.
Narosky, Jose. WW1. Digital image. Shell Shock. In War, There Are No Unwounded Soldiers. War History Online, 23 Oct. 2012. Web. 27 Sept. 2014. <http://www.warhistoryonline.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/WWI-300x225.jpg>.
Rats and Lice
Trenches become a breeding ground for lice and rats. Rats would feed off dead bodies of soldiers, while lice will cause discomfort for the soldiers for weeks.

Rats were as big as small cats, and were bold enough to take food from soldiers' hands.

When the soldiers were allowed to rest, they would carefully burn their uniform to kill lice living in them.
They would have to be extremely
careful doing this job, because they
would have to pay for any burns done
to the clothing.
The image shows a German soldier and the trench rats he caught.
German soldiers after rat hunting in their trenches. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.wereldoorlog1418.nl/warpictures/trenches/slide10.htm>.
(Angelo, 47-48)
Reference List
"Great Britain Wallpaper: Great Britain Flag." Great Britain Flag. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.fanpop.com/clubs/great-britain/images/13511748/title/great-britain-flag-wallpaper>.
What?
What did the soldiers have to go through?
What was it like to be in the War?
Front Lines. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2011/10/28/article-2054914-0C8EA66B00000578-834_468x286.jpg>.
Many soldiers not only suffered physically, but many also suffered from psychological challenges.

For the soldiers, it was hard to obtain even a day of peaceful sleep. Constant shelling, bombing and shooting made sleep nearly impossible.

Those on the front lines had a harder time because they could get attacked anytime and they wouldn't know. Thus causing a huge amount of stress to take over.

There were also soldiers who suffered from shell shock because they couldn't handle the continuous bombing. These soldiers unfortunately were unable to fight along.
For soldiers whom were in the trenches, fear would overcome their body.
"Life In The Trenches | WW1 Facts." WW1 Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://ww1facts.net/the-land-war/life-in-the-trenches/>.

"Canada's Role in WWI." Canada's Role in WWI. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.mta.ca/library/courage/canadasroleinwwi.html>.

Bolotta, Angelo, Dennis Gerrard, and Denise Shortt. "Canadian Soldiers Dig In." Canada Face of a Nation. Scarborough, Ont.: Gage Educational Pub., 2000. 47-48. Print.

Hilbbert, Adam. In the Trenches In World War I. Chicago: Raintree, 2006. 6+. Print.

Leach, Norman. Passchendaele: Canada's Triumph and Tragedy on the Fields of Flanders: An Illustrated History. Regina: Coteau, 2008. Print.

Sommerville, Donald. World War I. History of Warfare. Austin: Raintree Steck-Vaughn, 1999. Print.

"History of the First World War." History of the First World War. Canadian Museum of History, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014. <http://www.museedelaguerre.ca/cwm/exhibitions/guerre/history-fww-e.aspx>.

"trench foot." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 27 Sep. 2014. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/trench foot>.
"Perspectives on ‘shell Shock’." World War I Centenary. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://ww1centenary.oucs.ox.ac.uk/body-and-mind/shell-shock-on-film/>.
Where?
WW1 Map. Digital image. WWI. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://parkdalenews.com/issues/pn22/images/ww1_map.gif>.
When?
When did the war take place?
Where was the conflict taking place?
How?
The first canadian troops arrived in Britain on October 14, 1914
The British Empire
How did Canada contribute to the war?
How did Canada's contribution affect the results of the war?
How did Canada get involved in the war?
The Allies fought back on September (Battle of the Marne), but the Germans won the First Battle of Ypres in Belgium.
April of 1915 of the usage of chlorine gas at the Second Battle of Ypres
The third year of the war, 1916, was the year of the permanent trench system.
On August, Germany began to invade Belgium and defeated Russia at the Battle of Tannenberg.
The Battle of the Somme starts in France, on July, 1916
The Canadian troops arrived and fought at the Western Front on January 1915.
United States joins the fight against Germany, April of 1917
The Canadians participated in many battles including the Battle of Hill 70, the Second Battle of Ypres, and the Battle of Somme.
The Allies uses mines to destroy the German defenses at Messines Ridge
1918, March 3, Russia signs Peace Treaty with Germany, because of the revolution break out
German army begins to weaken
German sailors refuse to fight
Canadians later captured Vimy Ridge in 1917.
An armistice was signed between Germany and the Allies, on November 11, 1918
The first World War ended officially on June 28, 1919
On the same day, the Treaty of Versailles was signed
"Over the Top"
The fear to attract diseases, the fear of sudden attacks, the fear of death, the fear of YOUR death.
This is also known as:
Shell Shock
battle fatigue
combat fatigue
combat neurosis
"battle fatigue." Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House, Inc. 28 Sep. 2014. <Dictionary.com http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/battle fatigue>.
Eastern Front:
Northern Germany
Northern Austria-Hungary
border of Russia
Western Front:
top of Belgium
through France
War at Sea:
North Sea
English Channel
Atlantic Ocean
World War I, Map. Digital image. First World War (WWI). Historica Canada, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Although, it wasn't really a force act for Canada. Canadians were willing to support Great Britain, because they were a dominion of Britain. British-Canadians thought it was naturally the right thing to do, to help the mother country fight. Canadians pledged to support in the war effort, which Britain accepted.
Peace Congress. Digital image. Treaty of Versailles and President Wilson, 1919 and 1921. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.gilderlehrman.org/sites/default/files/imagecache/inline-3col-float/content-images/00752p1_3.jpg>.
Canada got involved in war by participating in battles, supporting the Allies and defending the empire.
Vimy Ridge
Many attempts from the British and French were made in taking Vimy Ridge from Germany, but had failed miserable, so The Canadian Corps were called to the front.
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 & Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 & Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 ;
Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48 ;
Leach, Passchendaele 16-36 & Sommerville, World War I 44)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 47-48)
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 & Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 & Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 & Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
(Bolotta,
Canada Face of a Nation
48)
(Bolotta,
Canada Face of a Nation
48)
(Bolotta,
Canada Face of a Nation
48)
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 42-43)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48 & Leach, Passchendaele 16-36)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48 & Leach, Passchendaele 6-7)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48 & Leach, Passchendaele 16-36)
The Canadian troops, led by British General Julian Byng, trained, planned and prepared before the attack.
Canadians Returning from Vimy Ridge 1917, First World War. Digital image. The Battle of Vimy Ridge, 9-12 April 1917. Canadian Museum of History, n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2014.
Canadian Soldiers -Vimy Ridge
I Canadian Corps Formation Sign. Digital image. I Canadian Corps. Wikipedia, 15 Oct. 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 & Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
The Canadian troops fought for days, then finally the Germans backed off and Vimy Ridge was in Canadian hands. They took the Ridge with 3598 killed, and 10602 injured.
After the success, Canadian General Arthur Currier replaced General Byng, making it the first time a division of only Canadians led by a Canadian.
Canadian Soldiers attacking in Vimy Ridge. Digital image. National Archives of Canada, n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.canadaatwar.ca/photos/vimy/vimy_19.jpg>.
Ship Sail YO
29th Infantry Batallion advancing over "No man's Land" through the German barbed wire and heavy fire during the Battle of Vimy Ridge. Digital image. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Sept. 2014. <http://www.canadaatwar.ca/photos/vimy/vimy_18.jpg>.
After this victory and after the Canadian divisions work together as a whole, many people believed that Canada forge its identity as an independent nation.
GRUNGE CANADA FLAG WALLPAPER. Digital image. Grunge Canada Flag Wallpaper. Www.desktopwallpapers4.me, 07 Aug. 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Denelson83. Canadian Red Ensign 1957-1965. Digital image. Canadian Red Ensign. Wikipedia, 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Hill 70
After the Canadians capture Vimy Ridge, the next goal was to take the French town of Lens. Lens was a vital rail link supplying the German army in the Somme region.
The Canadian Corps did extensive planning, because Hill 70 was heavily fortified with wire, dugouts, machine guns and poison gas.
General Arthur Currie, a tactician, planned to take Hill 70 first, to control higher ground.
After days of fighting and poison gas, the Germans abandoned the battle, ultimately making Canada win Hill 70.
Canada. Dept. of National Defence. Hill 70 - German Shelling. Digital image. Canadian War Museum, 12 Mar. 2009. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
1505 were killed
3810 wounded
487 poison gas
Canadian Soldiers:
Canada didn't take Lens, but weaken the German army. Because of these battles, Canada had a reputation of being able to withstand difficult battles.
LIBRARY AND ARCHIVES CANADA. A wounded soldier and his mates near Hill 70. Digital image. Vimy: A Battle Remembered, Hill 70: A Battle Forgotten March 1, 2012 by Tim Cook. N.p., Aug. 1917. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Passchendaele
Taken by the Germans
Oct., 1917: The British tried take it, but Germans pushed them off
Field-Marshall Haig thought the lost of 100,000s would be wasted if Passchendaele wasn't re-captured, and knew that the British, New Zealand and Australian troops were weakened, so called upon the Canadians.
The troops studied maps and terrain models to train.
Oct. 21-25: Canadians shot 600 artillery guns at German positions, followed by infantry attacks, repeatedly.
Mid-Oct to Nov.: Canadian troops and 2 British troops defeated the German army.
The troops drove the Germans out of their 3 year occupation in Passchendaele, and pass through the front line.
Unfortunately, passing the front line caused Britain to abandon Passchendaele as it was surrounded by Germany on 3 sides.
1917, Battle at Passchendaele, Belgium. Digital image. The Forgotten Battle of Passchendaele. TORONTO STAR FILE PHOTO, 11 Nov. 2007. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Conditions of Passchendaele:
sea of mud -waist deep water/mud
drainage canals destroyed by the constant shelling
autumn chill
rained fill craters
flooded trenches
dead bodies
Hurley, Frank. Chateau Wood Ypres 1917. Digital image. Battle of Passchendaele. Wikipedia, 29 Oct. 1917. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
Second Battle of Passchendaele - Wounded. Digital image. Second Battle of Passchendaele. Library and Archives Canada, 31 Dec. 1916. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 52-53 & Leach, Passchendaele 16-36)
(Hilbbert, In the Trenches In World War I 6,10-11 & Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48 & Leach, Passchendaele 16-36)
"World War One Video (For School)." YouTube. YouTube, 17 Dec. 2010. Web. 28 Sept. 2014.
(Leach, Passchendaele 16-36)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48 & Leach, Passchendaele 16-36)
(Leach, Passchendaele 16-36)
(Bolotta, Canada Face of a Nation 48 & Leach, Passchendaele 16-36)

As an end, Canada also proved to the world, that they're an independent nation.
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