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Modernism in Architecture
Transcript of Modernism in Architecture
"'Less is more.' Or is 'Less a bore.'"
Modernism in Architecture represents breaking from the past
At the start of the 20th century, there was a surge in construction, much in European and American cities due to growth and development
Modernism relies on steel and metal-frame construction rather than wood, stone, and cast iron. Steel became the major support
Architects would embrace new technology, steel, concrete, and glass construction
Lines were to be clean, without ornamentation and decoration. Function became primary
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Architects of Modernism
German architect who left Germany in the 1930's because of Hitler's closed attitude towards modern art
He settled in Chicago as a practicing architect
"He did not want to be interesting, he wanted to be good"
Had a large impact on the U.S. Modern movement
Closely linked to the visual artist, Mondrian
Designed many building complexes in and around Chicago
Simplified forms that have slight detailing on windows and dark colours for metal parts
Attracted to skyscrapers; his skyscraper designs of the postwar period were the most influential of the Modernist period
Louis Sullivan (1856-1924)
One of the earliest architects to use steel construction
Believed "form follows function"
His most revolutionary work was the Carson Price Scott Company built in Chicago in 1901.
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
Originally a student of Louis Sullivan
Developed his own style and disregarded conventional construction
His primary concern was to develop a compatible relationship with the structure and the environment so the building would seem to grow from it.
One of his earliest revolutionary designs was the Robie House in Chicago in 1909. Simplistic forms reflect Wright's Japanese influence. He let the exterior space flow into the interior space. The cantilevered roofs seem to float without support.
combined the influence of Wright and worked with painter, Mondrian to create a distinct modern look.
One of his most popular works is the Schroder House in Utrecht. It was built in the 1st quarter of the 20th century, and incorporated crisp lines and multiple surfaces.
Walter Gropius (1883-1969)
After WWI, an architectural style emerged in Germany, Holland, and France called the "International Style."
Eliminated nearly all ornamentation and avoided the use of natural materials.
"Appeared light in weight but did not have traditional architectural mass"
To achieve the light appearance, flat surfaces and thin walls were replaced with glass.
Considered boxlike structures of steel, reinforced concrete and glass.
Gropius was an early practitioner of the International Style and a powerful influence of 20th century art and architecture.
Le Corbusier (Charles-Edouard Jenneret)
Grew up on the International Style
Was one of the first to deviate from modern architectural principles
His favourite construction material was reinforced concrete
One of his earliest buildings was a residence called the
France 1929-1930. This building clearly demonstrates the simplicity and sense of weightlessness that was possible with concrete and glass.
Influenced by the International Style
American cities (primarily New York, Philadelphia and Chicago) became the settings for towering skyscrapers.
Harrison's skyscraper was the first with a simple shaft, that did not have changes or setbacks from top to bottom.
The Secretariat Building of New York (1947-1950) was designed by architects under his direction
This building has a grid of glass and steel on the wide sides and unbroken marble panels on the ends.
Eero Saarinen (1910-1961)
Involved in the construction of many beautiful structures- specifically air terminals
Sculpture, organic structures
Dulles International Airport
located outside Washington D.C. There are 16 slanted concrete pillars, and an enormous hammock-shaped roof which tilts to one side with an overall floating appearance.
Admirer of Le Courbusier and intensively studied his work.
Devised his own original solutions to architectural problems.
Had a strong influence on his contemporaries.
One of his last and finest designs was the
Kimbell Art Museum
in Fort Worth, Texas, 1972.
R. Buckminster Fuller
Sought to make use of inexpensive, easily manufactured materials.
Best known for his
dome. Geodesic refers to a form of solid geometry that is the basis for structures built of interlocking polygons. Originally it was a bubble 170 feet high and 258 feet in diameter.
Working mostly in his native Israel, Safdie has created some of the most unique and practical urban dwellings.
Created the dramatic structure called
. Habitat was a new concept in housing. Mass-produced concrete units (each a complete apartment) were stacked like building blocks by cranes.
Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers
Built in the 1970's- the talk of the town was the
Georges Pompidou National Center of Art and Culture
"Turns the functional style on its head by turning it inside out"
A 5 story escalator runs along the exterior along with the innards of mechanical systems of the building. The glass walls enclose the openness of gallery and office space.
Philip Johnson and John Burgee
Responsible for some of the most advanced thinking in major projects in the country.
Used different solutions for different clients.
Pennzoil Place in Houston (1976) is a dramatic example of this new direction. These two towers are seperated by a 10 foot space and their tops are tapered at 45 degrees. The glass wedge at the bottom provides a very large lobby.
I. M. Pei
Had designed many hotels and government structures in America.
One of his most dramatic buildings is the
East Building of the National Gallery
in Washington, D.C. (1978)
Built to house part of the nations great collection of art and a huge research library.
The white marble structure shows a completely different face in each direction. One wall has no windows, Other walls have all windows.