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Chapter 1: The human body: An orientation

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Han Nguyen

on 8 September 2010

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Transcript of Chapter 1: The human body: An orientation

The Sciences of Anatomy Physiology study of structure and shape of the body how the body and its parts function & Gross large, easily observable parts Microscopic small structures only seen through a microscope Levels of Organization An Introduction to Organ systems Homeostasis and System Integration The languages of Anatomy Unit 1
Smallest largest Atoms Molecules Macromolecules Cells Tissues Smallest particle of matter 2 or more atoms held together by a chemical bond molecules held together by a bond forming large compounds smallest part of a living thing group of cells working together to carry out a function support covering movement control Organ Organ
system group of tissues working together Organism group of organs working together living body, all the systems working together Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive Necessary Life Functions Survival Needs imbalance 1. Maintain Boundary - "inside" remains separate from "outside" 2. Movement - all activities promoted by the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from one place to another by walking, swimming, and so forth. It also includes the movement of substances such as food, blood, urine, etc. through internal organs. 3. Responsiveness - ability to sense changes (stimuli) in the environment and then react to them 4. Digestion - process of breaking down food for absorption 5. Metabolism - all chemical reactions that occur within the body. It includes breaking down complex molecules, building larger structures from smaller ones, and using nutrients and oxygen to produce ATP (energy molecule that powers cellular activities). 6. Excretion - removing wastes from the body 7. Reproduction - production of offspring 8. Growth - increase in size (cell number increases) things required to perform the 8 functions Nutrients - chemicals used for energy and cell building (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, vitamins, minerals) Oxygen - gas necessary for chemical reactions Water - 60-80% body weight; provides fluid base for secretions and excretions Body Temperature - 98.6 F necessary for metabolic reactions too low - reactions slow and could stop too high - reactions happen too fast and proteins break down Atmospheric pressure - proper gas exchange depends on appropriate pressure maintaining a stable internal environment (regulating hormones, body temp., water balance, etc.) the body is unable to balance the environment; can result in a disease (example - diabetes, hypertension, arthritis) maintained by the body responding to feedback parts of loop 1. Receptor - a change is detected (stimulus) 2. Control center - a decision is made regarding what to do with the information 3. Effector - a response is carried out 2 kinds Negative Feedback Loop Positive Feedback Loop the effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity almost all metabolic reactions are controlled by negative feedback the original stimulus is increased and the response is continually pushed farther only 2 processes are controlled by positive feedback 1. Childbirth 2. Blood clotting Why is it necessary to know proper terminology? To avoid confustion Exact terms are used to identify: 1. Position 2. Direction 3. Regions 4. Structures Anatomical Position Regional Terms (Landmarks) Directional Terms Erect - body position Parallel - feet Hanging at sides - arms Palms forward - hands (thumbs) out You must be able to label this Superficial Deep toward the front of the body; in front of toward the back of the body; behind toward the head; above away from the head; below toward the midline away from the midline close to the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk farther from point of attachment toward the body surface away from the body surface Forms the external body covering
Protects deeper tissue from injury
Synthesizes vitamin D
Location of cutaneous (pain, pressure, etc.) receptors
sweat and oil glands Protects and supports body organs
Provides a framework the mucles use to cause movement
Blood cells are formed within bones
Stores minerals Allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expression
Maintains posture
Produces heat Fast-acting control system of the body
Respond to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands Glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use (metabolism) by body cells Blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, etc.;
The heart pumps blood. Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
Disposes of debris in the lymphatic stream;
Houses white blood cells involved in immunity Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
The gaseous exchanges occur through the walls of the air sacs of the lungs Breaks food down into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells
Indigestible food stuffs are eliminated as feces Elimiates nitrogenous wastes from the body
Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of the blood Overall function of the reproductive system is production of offspring.
Testes produce sperm and male sex hormone
Ducts and glands aid in delivery of visible sperm to the female reproductive tract.
Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones.
Remaining structures serve as sites for fertilization and deveopment of the fetus
Mammary glands of female breast produce milk to nourish the new born Body Planes & Sections Body Cavities Divisions of the Abdominopelvic Cavity Plane - imaginary line through the body
Section - cut Types of Cuts: 1. Sagittal - lengthwise dividing right and left 2. Frontal - divides anterior and posterior 3. Transverse - (cross section) - horizontal cut dividing superior and inferior A. Dorsal Body Cavity
1. Cranial
2. Spinal B. Ventral Body Cavity
1. Thoracic
a. Mediastium - central region that
separates the lungs into right and
left cavities
2. Abdominopelvic
a. Abdominal
b. Pelvic
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