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AP: Revolutions Part Two
Transcript of AP: Revolutions Part Two
AP: Revolutions Part Two
-During Revolution, like every other European country declares war on France
-France institutes draft and raises 800,000 men to "defend the ideas of the Revolution"
-A young Corsican, Napoleon Bonaparte, rises through the ranks until he's commander of all French armies. (He could never have risen to this level before Revolution- why?)
-From late 1700s to 1815, Napoleon takes on all of Europe
-One by one, European states fall or ally with him. Only Russia and Britain stand against by 1812.
-Napoleon invades Russia and his army starves. He is exiled to Elba, then comes back, is defeated by Brits at Waterloo, then finally exiled to St. Helena where he dies.
-Brought order back to France while keeping some elements of Revolution
-Kept civil (legal) equality, secular law, brought back Catholic Church.
-In broader empire, he ended feudal system, proclaimed equality, and insisted on religious toleration.
-Even outside France, this will plant the seed for later democratic movements.
-French revolution spreads ideas to its Caribbean colony, Haiti.
-In 1791, a ten year revolt, led by Toussaint Louverture, is led by black slaves against whites. Whites are either killed or flee, creating an island run by slaves. Plantations destroyed.
-Napoleon attempts to take it back but fails (causing him to give up on overseas empire)
-Revolution destroys Haitian economy
-Europeans grow even stricter on their colonies for fear of new revolts
-Napoleonic Wars, in which Spain was conquered by France, weaken Spain's hold on colonies
-Increasing resentment among educated creoles, who were exposed to Revolutionary ideas, against Peninsulares
-Led by Simon Bolivar, colonies overthrew Spanish overlords and declared independence.
-Natives and slaves benefit little- still controlled by white Creoles
-No "unification" like in United States- freed colonies are isolated from each other
-Remaining casta system makes L.A. countries susceptible to dictatorships and "strong men", unlike the egalitarian United States
"Latin America is ungovernable. Those who serve the revolution plow the sea. I have plowed the sea. Our America will fall into the hands of vulgar tyrants.
-Simon Bolivar, 1830