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Culture

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Sandra Cleveland

on 18 August 2015

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Transcript of Culture

Culture
What is Culture?
Culture
is the way of life of a group people who share
similar beliefs and customs.



A particular culture can be understood by looking at language, religion, daily life, history, art, government, and the economy.

The Earth is divided into culture regions. Each culture region includes countries that have certain traits in common. They may share similar economic systems, forms of government, and social groups. Their histories, religions, and art forms may share similar influences
Seven Elements of Culture
1. Social
Organization
6. Traditions
and Norms
7. Arts and
Entertainment
3. Religion
2. Language
4. Government
5. Economics
Cultural Hearth:

center or birthplace
where important
ideas begin and
from which they
spread to
surrounding
cultures.
Folk Culture:


*traditional
*typically hard to
trace to one origin
*developed over a
long period of time
*preserved among
aging generations

Popular Culture:

*typically
traceable
to a specific
person or group
that arises from
advances in
technology


S
o
c
i
a
l
Organization
Creates social structure by
organizing its members into
small units to meet basic
needs.
Family Patterns

Family is the most important unit of social organization.
Through the family, children learn how they are expected to act and what to believe.
Nuclear family:
parents, children.
This is a typical family in an industrial society.
Extended family:
several generations living in one household,
working and living together: grandparents, aunts, uncles,
cousins. Respect for elders is strong.
Social classes:
rank people in order of status, depending on
what is important to the culture (money, job, education,
ancestry, etc.)
L
a
n
g
u
a
g
e
Language is a key element in a
culture's development.

Through language, people
communicate ideas and experiences
and pass on cultural values and
traditions.
All cultures have a spoken language
(even if there is no developed forms
of writing).
People who speak the same language often share the same culture.

Some societies, however, include large groups of people who speak different languages. India, for example, has more than 700 languages.
Language Families

Large groups of languages having similar roots.
ex. Romance languages (French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese).

Each language can have several different dialects.
R
e
l
i
g
i
o
n
Religion helps people answer basic
questions about the meaning and
purpose of life. It supports the values
that a group of people consider
important.
Religious beliefs vary around the world.
Atheism:

the belief in no god or gods

Monotheism:

the belief in one god

Polytheism:
the belief in many gods
Religious practices such as prayers and rituals vary from one culture to another.
Struggles over religious differences are a problem in many countries. These troubles often find their roots in the past.

In many cultures, however, religion enables people to find a sense of identity.
G
o
v
e
r
n
m
e
n
t
E
c
o
n
o
m
i
c
s
T
r
a
d
i & Norms
t
i
o
n
s
Arts & Entertainment
Cultural Landscapes
Technology is an important part of culture.
As human beings use natural resources or alter the surface of the earth,
they produce unique cultural landscapes that reflect specific cultures
Cultural Change
Cultures change by both internal and external influences.
Internal: new discoveries, inventions, technologies.
External: contact with other cultures.
*
cultural convergence
:
occurs when skills, arts, ideas, habits, and institutions of one
culture come in contact with another.
*
cultural diffusion
:
the process by which a cultural element is transmitted across
distance from one group or individual to another. This often
occurs through migration or through the exchange of goods and
ideas.
*
cultural divergence
:
the restriction of contact with outside cultures in order to limit
the spread of ideas. This occurs when repressive governments
seek to control transportation and communication in and out of an
area in order to control the population of the area.
With more than 200 independent countries existing in the world today, it is important to understand
what characteristics defines a country
.
1. clearly defined
territory
:
the land, water, and natural resources within its boundaries.

2.
population
:
the people; the size of the population does not matter.
3.
sovereignty
:
freedom from outside control
4.
government
:
the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public
policies and provides for its common good.
Government is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies and provides for its common good.
These needs include keeping order within a society, protecting the society from outside threats, and providing some services to its people.
Government Structure
:
the relationship between the
central government and
smaller internal units of
government
Each government system or political system can be classified according to its structure and its basis of authority.
Unitary
: one central government runs the nation.
Local governments have only the powers given them
by the central government.
Federation
: some powers are given to the national government
while other powers are reserved for more local
governments.
Confederation
: smaller political units kee their sovereignty and
give the central government only very limited power.
Government Authority
:
the source of a government's
authority; where does it get it
power to govern.
Authoritarian
: the leader(s) hold all or nearly all of
the power.
Dictatorship
: ruler/ruling group holds power by
force usually relying on the military for
support
Totalitarianism
: government tries to control every
part of society.
Monarchy
: kings/queens. The most common kind of authoritarian government throughtout history.
Democracy
: people have supreme power, government
acts by and with the consent of the governed.
Direct Democracy
: all citizens have a direct voice
in the functions of government.
Representative Democracy
: citizens choose
representative to carry out the functions of
government.
How societies use limited resources
to satisfy the wants and needs of
the population.
Any economic system must answer
three basic questions
:
1. What (and how many) goods and services will
be produced?

2. How will these products be produced?

3. How will the products and the wealth gained
from their sale be distributed?
Types of Economic Systems
Traditional Economy
:
(subsistence economy)
people produce most of
what they need to survive
(hunting, gathering,
farming, herding, make
their own clothing/tools).
Market Economy
:
(free enterprise)
is the buying and selling
of goods and services;
gives great freedom to
individuals and groups;
capitalism
is the primary form today.
Command Economy
:
government controls what/
how goods are produced
and what they cost.
Individuals have little
economic power.
Mixed Economy
:
Individuals make some
economic decisions and
the government makes
other.
The products of the human
imagination.


They help us pass on the culture's
basic beliefs.
Art
Music
Literature
Folk Tales
A
Tradition
is a belief or behavior
passed down within a group or
society with symbolic meaning or
special significance with origins in
the past.
A
Norm
is a group-held belief about
how members should behave in a given context or situation. These are informal understandings that govern society's behaviors and promote a great deal of social control.
Examples of Social Norms:
*women have to wear clothes that cover their torso in public
(definitely a norm in most countries; not a norm for some tribes in Africa)

*women covering their faces
(norm in Muslim societies; not a norm in Western societies)

*greeting someone when you see them for the first time during the day

*staring at people you do not know
(considered rude in the U.S.; normal in other societies)
*Respect for elders

*using titles of respect for elders or people you do not know well

*offering your seat to elders

*males holding doors for females and allowing them to enter first

*domestic violence not allowed
(norm in the U.S; not a norm in some other countries)
Full transcript