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EPQ Timeline

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Ayesha Khan

on 5 October 2017

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Transcript of EPQ Timeline


March 24, 1933
German Parliament
passes Enabling Act
dictatorial powers.

In July

- Nazis pass law allowing for forced sterilization of those found by a Hereditary Health Court to have genetic defects.

October 4
1933 - Jews are prohibited from being newspaper editors.

November 24, 1933

- Nazis pass a law against Habitual and Dangerous Criminals, which allows beggars, the homeless, alcoholics and the unemployed to be sent to concentration camps.

In September
-Nazis establish Reich Chamber of Culture, and then exclude Jews from the Arts.

January 24, 1934
Jews are banned from the German Labor Front.

April 1, 1933

- Nazis stage boycott of Jewish shops and businesses.

April 11, 1933

- Nazis issue a decree defining a non-Aryan as "anyone descended from non-Aryan, especially Jewish, parents or grandparents. One parent or grandparent classifies the descendant as non-Aryan...especially if one parent or grandparent was of the Jewish faith."

July 14, 1933

- Nazis pass law to strip Jewish immigrants from Poland of their German citizenship.

September 29, 1933

- Nazis prohibit Jews from owning land.

May 17, 1934

- Jews not allowed national health insurance.


July 22, 1934

- Jews are prohibited from getting legal qualifications.


21, 1935
Nazis ban Jews from serving in the military.

August 6, 1935

Nazis force Jewish performers/artists to join Jewish Cultural Unions.

September 15,

-Nuremberg Race Laws against Jews decreed.

August 1, 1936

-Olympic games begin in Berlin. Hitler and top Nazis seek to gain legitimacy through favorable public opinion from foreign visitors and thus temporarily refrain from actions against Jews

In January
- Jews are banned from many professional occupations including teaching Germans, and from being accountants or dentists. They are also denied tax reductions and child allowances.

In August

- Nazis set up an Office for Combating Homosexuality and Abortions (by healthy women).

November 8, 1937
-'Eternal Jew' travelling exhibition opens in Munich.

In March
- After the Anschluss, the SS is placed in charge of Jewish affairs in Austria with
Adolf Eichmann
establishing an Office for Jewish Emigration in Vienna.
then establishes Mauthausen concentration camp near Linz.

April 22, 1938
- Nazis prohibit Aryan 'front-ownership' of Jewish businesses.

April 26, 1938
- Nazis order Jews to register wealth and property.

June 14, 1938
- Nazis order Jewish-owned businesses to register.

In July
- At Evian, France, the U.S. convenes a League of Nations conference with delegates from 32 countries to consider helping Jews fleeing Hitler, but results in inaction as no country will accept them.

July 6, 1938

- Nazis prohibit Jews from trading and providing a variety of specified commercial services.

July 23, 1938
- Nazis order Jews over age 15 to apply for identity cards from the police, to be shown on demand to any police officer.

July 25, 1938

- Jewish doctors prohibited by law from practising medicine.

August 11, 1938

- Nazis destroy the synagogue in Nuremberg.

August 17, 1938

- Nazis require Jewish women and men to add Sarah and Israel to their names on all legal documents including passports.

September 27, 1938

Jews are prohibited from all legal practices.

October 5, 1938

- Law requires Jewish passports to be stamped with a large red "J."

October 28, 1938

- Nazis arrest 17,000 Jews of Polish nationality living in Germany, then expel them back to Poland which refuses them entry, leaving them in 'No-Man's Land' near the Polish border for several months.

November 9/10, 1938

- Kristallnacht - The Night of Broken Glass.

November 12, 1938
- Nazis fine Jews one billion marks for damages related to Kristallnacht.
•November 15, 1938

- Jewish pupils are expelled from all non-Jewish German schools.

December 3, 1938
- Law for compulsory Aryanization of all Jewish businesses.

December 14, 1938

- Hermann Göring takes charge of resolving the "Jewish Question."

January 24, 1939
- SS leader Reinhard Heydrich is ordered by Göring to speed up the emigration
of Jews.

January 30, 1939

- Hitler threatens Jews during Reichstag speech.

February 21, 1939
Nazis force Jews to hand over all gold and silver items.

April 30, 1939
Jews lose rights as tenants and are relocated into Jewish houses.

In May
The St. Louis, a ship crowded with 930 Jewish refugees, is turned away by Cuba, the United States and other countries and returns to Europe

June 21, 1939

– The Nuremburg Laws state that Jews are prohibited from marry non-Jews

July 4, 1939

- German Jews denied the right to hold government jobs.

July 21, 1939

- Adolf Eichmann is appointed director of the Prague Office of Jewish Emigration.

September 1, 1939

- Jews in Germany are forbidden to be outdoors after 8 p.m. in winter and 9 p.m. in summer.

September 7/8, 1939

– Registration of radios. The form required information on the owner and on the make and specification of the apparatus.

September 21, 1939
issues instructions to SS Einsatzgruppen in Poland regarding treatment of Jews, stating they are to be gathered into ghettos near railroads for the future "final goal." He also ordered a census.

In October 1939 -
Nazis begin euthanasia on sick and disabled in Germany.

October 6, 1939
- Proclamation by Hitler on the isolation of Jews.

October 12, 1939
- Jews are taken from Vienna.

October 26, 1939
- Forced labor decree issued for Polish Jews aged 14 to 60.

November 23
, 1939 - Yellow stars required to be worn by Polish Jews over age 10.

In December -

Adolf Eichmann takes over section IV B4 of the Gestapo dealing solely with Jewish affairs and evacuations.

In January
- Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher - "The time is near when a machine will go into motion which is going to prepare a grave for the world's criminal - Judah - from which there will be no resurrection."

January 25, 1940
- Nazis choose the town of Oświęcim (Auschwitz) in Poland near Krakow as the site of a new concentration camp

February 12, 1940
- First deportation of German Jews into occupied Poland.

April 30, 1940

- The Lodz Ghetto in occupied Poland is sealed off from the outside world with 230,000 Jews locked inside.

May 1, 1940

- Rudolf Höss is chosen to be kommandant of Auschwitz

In July

- Eichmann's Madagascar Plan is presented, proposing to deport all European Jews to the island of Madagascar, off the coast of east Africa.

July 17, 1940

- The first anti-Jewish measures are taken in Vichy France.

August 8, 1940

- Romania introduces anti-Jewish measures restricting education and employment, then later begins "Romanianization" of Jewish businesses

October 22, 1940
-Deportation of 29,000 German Jews from Baden, the Saar, and Alsace-Lorraine into Vichy France.

In November

- The Krakow Ghetto is sealed off containing 70,000 Jews.

November 15, 1940
- The Warsaw Ghetto, containing over 400,000 Jews, is sealed off.

In January
Quote from Nazi newspaper, Der Stürmer, published by Julius Streicher - "Now judgment has begun and it will reach its conclusion only when knowledge of the Jews has been erased from the earth."

In January
A pogrom in Romania results in over 2,000 Jews killed.

February 22, 1941

- 430 Jewish hostages are deported from Amsterdam after a Dutch Nazi is killed by Jews.

March 1, 1941
- Himmler makes his first visit to Auschwitz, during which he orders Kommandant Höss to begin massive expansion, including a new compound to be built at nearby Birkenau that can hold 100,000 prisoners.

March 7, 1941
- German Jews ordered into forced labor

March 29, 1941
- A 'Commissariat' for Jewish Affairs is set up in Vichy France.

May 14, 1941

- 3,600 Jews arrested in Paris.

June 29/30

- Romanian troops conduct a pogrom against Jews in the town of Jassy, killing 10,000.

In July
- As the German Army advances, SS Einsatzgruppen follow along and conduct mass murder of Jews in seized lands.

In July
- Ghettos established at Kovno, Minsk, Vitebsk and Zhitomer. Also in July, the government of Vichy France seizes Jewish owned property.
July 21, 1941 - In occupied Poland near Lublin, Majdanek concentration camp becomes operational.

July 25/26
- 3,800 Jews killed during a pogrom by Lithuanians in Kovno.
July 31, 1941 - Göring instructs Heydrich to prepare for Final Solution.

Over Summer
- Himmler summons Auschwitz Kommandant Höss to Berlin and tells him, "The Führer has ordered the Final Solution of the Jewish question. We, the SS, have to carry out this order...I have therefore chosen Auschwitz for this purpose."

In August
- Jews in Romania forced into Transnistria. By December, 70,000 perish.

In August
- Ghettos established at Bialystok and Lvov.

August 26, 1941
- The Hungarian Army rounds up 18,000 Jews at Kamenets-Podolsk.

September 3, 1941
- The first test use of Zyklon-B gas at Auschwitz.
September 1, 1941 - German Jews ordered to wear yellow stars.

September 6, 1941
- The Vilna Ghetto is established containing 40,000 Jews.
September 17, 1941 - Beginning of general deportation of German Jews.

September 27/28
- 23,000 Jews killed at Kamenets-Podolsk, in the Ukraine.

September 29/30
- SS Einsatzgruppen murder 33,771 Jews at Babi Yar near Kiev.

In October
- 35,000 Jews from Odessa shot.

October 23, 1941
- Nazis forbid emigration of Jews from the Reich.

In November
- SS Einsatzgruppe B reports a tally of 45,476 Jews killed.

November 24, 1941
- Theresienstadt Ghetto is established near Prague, Czechoslovakia. The Nazis will use it as a model ghetto for propaganda purposes.

November 30, 1941
- Near Riga, a mass shooting of Latvian and German Jews.

December 8, 1941
- In occupied Poland, near Lodz, Chelmno extermination camp becomes operational. Jews taken there are placed in mobile gas vans and driven to a burial place while carbon monoxide from the engine exhaust is fed into the sealed rear compartment, killing them. The first gassing victims include 5,000 Gypsies who had been deported from the Reich to Lodz.

December 12, 1941
- The ship "Struma" leaves Romania for Palestine carrying 769 Jews but is later denied permission by British authorities to allow the passengers to disembark. In February 1942, it sails back into the Black Sea where it is intercepted by a Russian submarine and sunk as an "enemy target.

In January
- Mass killings of Jews using Zyklon-B begin at Auschwitz-Birkenau in Bunker I (the red farmhouse) in Birkenau with the bodies being buried in mass graves in a nearby meadow.

January 20, 1942
- Wannsee Conference to coordinate the "Final Solution."

January 31, 1942
- SS Einsatzgruppe A reports a tally of 229,052 Jews killed.

In March
- In occupied Poland, Belzec extermination camp becomes operational. The camp is fitted with permanent gas chambers using carbon monoxide piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but will later substitute Zyklon-B.

March 17, 1942
- The deportation of Jews from Lublin to Belzec.

March 24, 1942
- The start of deportation of Slovak Jews to Auschwitz.

March 27, 1942
- The start of deportation of French Jews to Auschwitz.

March 28, 1942
- Fritz Sauckel named Chief of Manpower to expedite recruitment of slave labor.

March 30, 1942
- First trainloads of Jews from Paris arrive at Auschwitz

In April
- First transports of Jews arrive at Majdanek.

April 20, 1942
- German Jews are banned from using public transportation.

In May
- In occupied Poland, Sobibor extermination camp becomes operational. The camp is fitted with three gas chambers using carbon monoxide piped in from engines, but will later substitute Zyklon-B.

May 18, 1942
- The New York Times reports on an inside page that Nazis have machine-gunned over 100,000 Jews in the Baltic states, 100,000 in Poland and twice as many in western Russia.

In June
- Gas vans used in Riga.

June 1, 1942
- Jews in France, Holland, Belgium, Croatia, Slovakia, Romania ordered to wear yellow stars.

June 5, 1942
- SS report 97,000 persons have been "processed" in mobile gas vans.

June 11, 1942
- Eichmann meets with representatives from France, Belgium and Holland to coordinate deportation plans for Jews.

June 30, 1942
- At Auschwitz, a second gas chamber, Bunker II (the white farmhouse), is made operational at Birkenau due to the number of Jews arriving.

July 2, 1942
- Jews from Berlin sent to Theresienstadt.
July 7, 1942 - Himmler grants permission for sterilization experiments at Auschwitz.

July 14, 1942
- Beginning of deportation of Dutch Jews to Auschwitz.

July 16/17
- 12,887 Jews of Paris are rounded up and sent to Drancy Internment Camp located outside the city. A total of approximately 74,000 Jews, including 11,000 children, will eventually be transported from Drancy to Auschwitz, Majdanek and Sobibor.

July 17/18
- Himmler visits Auschwitz-Birkenau for two days, inspecting all ongoing construction and expansion, then observes the extermination process from start to finish as two trainloads of Jews arrive from Holland. Kommandant Höss is then promoted. Construction includes four large gas chamber/crematories.


July 19, 1942
- Himmler orders Operation Reinhard, mass deportations of Jews in Poland to extermination camps.

July 22, 1942
- Beginning of deportations from the Warsaw Ghetto to the new extermination camp, Treblinka. Also, beginning of the deportation of Belgian Jews to Auschwitz.

July 23, 1942
- Treblinka extermination camp opened in occupied Poland, east of Warsaw. The camp is fitted with two buildings containing 10 gas chambers, each holding 200 persons. Carbon monoxide gas is piped in from engines placed outside the chamber, but Zyklon-B will later be substituted. Bodies are burned in open pits.

In August
- The start of deportations of Croatian Jews to Auschwitz.

August 26-28
- 7,000 Jews arrested in unoccupied France.

September 9, 1942
- Open pit burning of bodies begins at Auschwitz in place of burial. The decision is made to dig up and burn those already buried, 107,000 corpses, to prevent fouling of ground water.

September 18, 1942
- Reduction of food rations for Jews in Germany.

September 26, 1942
- SS begins cashing in possessions and valuables of Jews from Auschwitz and Majdanek.By February 1943, over 800 boxcars of confiscated goods will have left Auschwitz.

October 5, 1942
- Himmler orders all Jews in concentration camps in Germany to be sent to Auschwitz and Majdanek.

October 5, 1942
- A German eyewitness observes SS mass murder.

October 14, 1942
- Mass killing of Jews from Mizocz Ghetto in the Ukraine.

October 22, 1942
- SS put down a revolt at Sachsenhausen by a group of Jews about to be sent to Auschwitz.

October 25, 1942 -
Deportations of Jews from Norway to Auschwitz begin.

October 28, 1942
- The first transport from Theresienstadt arrives at Auschwitz.

In November
- The mass killing of 170,000 Jews in the area of Bialystok.

December 10, 1942
- The first transport of Jews from Germany arrives at Auschwitz.

December 28, 1942
- Sterilization experiments on women at Birkenau begin.

In December
- Exterminations at Belzec cease after an estimated 600,000 Jews have been murdered. The camp is then dismantled, plowed over and planted.

January 18, 1943
- First resistance by Jews in the Warsaw Ghetto.

January 29, 1943
- Nazis order all Gypsies arrested and sent to extermination camps.

In February
- The Romanian government proposes to the Allies the transfer of 70,000 Jews to Palestine, but receives no response from Britain or the U.S.

In February
- Greek Jews are ordered into ghettos.

February 27, 1943
- Jews working in Berlin armaments industry are sent to Auschwitz.

In March
The start of deportations of Jews from Greece to Auschwitz, lasting until August, totaling 49,900 persons.

March 14, 1943

- The Krakow Ghetto is liquidated.

March 17, 1943
- Bulgaria

states opposition to deportation of its Jews.

March 22, 1943
Newly built gas chamber/crematory IV opens at Auschwitz.

March 31, 1943
Newly built gas chamber/crematory II opens at Auschwitz.

April 4, 1943
- Newly built gas chamber/crematory V opens at Auschwitz.

April 9, 1943
- Exterminations at Chelmno cease. The camp will be reactivated in the spring of 1944 to liquidate ghettos. In all, Chelmno will total 300,000 deaths.

April 19, 1943
- Waffen-SS attacks Jewish Resistance in Warsaw Ghetto.

In May
- SS
Dr. Josef Mengele
arrives at Auschwitz.

May 19, 1943
- Nazis declare Berlin to be Judenfrei (cleansed of Jews).

June 11, 1943
- Himmler orders liquidation of all Jewish ghettos in occupied Poland.

June 25, 1943
- Newly built gas chamber/crematory III opens at Auschwitz. With its completion, the four new crematories at Auschwitz have a daily capacity of 4,756 bodies.

In August
- Exterminations cease at Treblinka, after an estimated 870,000 deaths.

August 2, 1943
- Two hundred Jews escape from Treblinka extermination camp during a revolt. Nazis then hunt them down one by one.

August 16, 1943
- The Bialystok Ghetto is liquidated.

In September
- The Vilna and Minsk Ghettos are liquidated.

September 11, 1943
- Beginning of Jewish family transports from Theresienstadt to Auschwitz.

October 14, 1943
- Massive escape from Sobibor as Jews and Soviet POWs break out, with 300 making it safely into nearby woods. Of those 300, fifty survive. Exterminations then cease at Sobibor, after over 250,000 deaths. All traces of the death camp are then removed and trees are planted.

October 16, 1943
- Jews in Rome rounded up, with over 1,000 sent to Auschwitz.

In November
- The Riga Ghetto is liquidated.

November 3, 1943
- Nazis carry out Operation Harvest Festival in occupied Poland, killing 42,000 Jews.

November 11, 1943
- Auschwitz Kommandant Höss is promoted to chief inspector of concentration camps. The new kommandant, Liebehenschel, then divides up the vast Auschwitz complex of over 30 sub-camps into three main sections

December 2, 1943
- The first transport of Jews from Vienna arrives at Auschwitz

December 16, 1943
- The chief surgeon at Auschwitz reports that 106 castration operations have been performed.

In February
- Eichmann visits Auschwitz.

April 5, 1944
- A Jewish inmate, Siegfried Lederer, escapes from Auschwitz-Birkenau and makes it safely to Czechoslovakia. He then warns the Elders of the Council at Theresienstadt about Auschwitz.

April 6, 1944
- Nazis raid a French home for Jewish children.

April 7, 1944
- Two Jewish inmates escape from Auschwitz-Birkenau and make it safely to Czechoslovakia. One of them, Rudolf Vrba, submits a report to the Papal Nuncio in Slovakia which is forwarded to the Vatican, received there in mid June.

April 14, 1944
- First transports of Jews from Athens to Auschwitz, totaling 5,200 persons.

In May
- Himmler's agents secretly propose to the Western Allies to trade Jews for trucks, other commodities or money.

May 8, 1944
- Rudolf Höss returns to Auschwitz, ordered by Himmler to oversee the extermination of Hungarian Jews.

May 15, 1944
- Beginning of the deportation of Jews from Hungary to Auschwitz.

May 16, 1944
- Jews from Hungary arrive at Auschwitz. Eichmann arrives to personally oversee and speed up the extermination process. By May 24, an estimated 100,000 have been gassed. Between May 16 and May 31, the SS report collecting 88 pounds of gold and white metal from the teeth of those gassed. By the end of June, 381,661 persons - half of the Jews in Hungary - arrive at Auschwitz.

In June 1944
- A Red Cross delegation visits Theresienstadt after the Nazis have carefully prepared the camp and the Jewish inmates, resulting in a favorable report.

In Summer 1944
- Auschwitz-Birkenau records its highest-ever daily number of persons gassed and burned at just over 9,000. Six huge pits are used to burn bodies, as the number exceeds the capacity of the crematories.

July 24, 1944
- Russian troops liberate the first concentration camp, at Majdanek where over 360,000 had been murdered.

August 4, 1944
- Anne Frank and family are arrested by the Gestapo in Amsterdam, then sent to Auschwitz. Anne and her sister Margot are later sent to Bergen-Belsen where Anne dies of typhus on March 15, 1945.

August 6, 1944
- Lodz, the last Jewish ghetto in Poland, is liquidated with 60,000 Jews sent to Auschwitz.

October 7, 1944
- A revolt by Sonderkommando (Jewish slave laborers) at Auschwitz-Birkenau results in complete destruction of Crematory IV.

October 15, 1944
- Nazis seize control of the Hungarian puppet government, then resume deporting Jews, which had temporarily ceased due to international political pressure to stop Jewish persecutions.

October 28, 1944
- The last transport of Jews to be gassed, 2,000 from Theresienstadt, arrives at Auschwitz.

October 30, 1944
- Last use of the gas chambers at Auschwitz.

November 8, 1944
- Nazis force 25,000 Jews to walk over 100 miles in rain and snow from Budapest to the Austrian border, followed by a second forced march of 50,000 persons, ending at Mauthausen.

November 25, 1944
- Himmler orders destruction of the crematories at Auschwitz.

In December 1944
- Oskar Schindler saves 1200 Jews by moving them from Plaszow labor camp to his hometown of Brunnlitz.

January 6, 1945
- Russians liberate Budapest, freeing over 80,000 Jews.

January 18, 1945
- Nazis evacuate 66,000 from Auschwitz.

January 27, 1945
- Russian troops liberate Auschwitz. By this time, an estimated 2,000,000 persons, including 1,500,000 Jews, have been murdered there.


April 4, 1945
- Ohrdruf camp is liberated, later visited by General Eisenhower.

April 10, 1945
- Allies liberate Buchenwald.

April 15, 1945
- Approximately 40,000 prisoners freed at Bergen-Belsen by the British, who report "both inside and outside the huts was a carpet of dead bodies, human excreta, rags and filth."

April 29, 1945
- U.S. 7th Army liberates Dachau.

April 30, 1945
- Hitler commits suicide in his Berlin bunker.

April 30, 1945
- Americans free 33,000 inmates from concentration camps.

May 2, 1945
- Theresienstadt taken over by the Red Cross.

May 5, 1945
- Mauthausen liberated.

May 7, 1945
- Unconditional German surrender signed by General Alfred Jodl at Reims.

May 9, 1945
- Hermann Göring captured by members of U.S. 7th Army.

May 23, 1945
- SS-Reichsführer Himmler commits suicide while in British custody.


Jan 30th, 1933
Born Franz Brichta in Berlin, on the
7th October 1928
, Frank was 4 years and a few months when Hitler came to power.

During August
Frank and his family were living in a large Villa in Berlin-Wilmersdorf, Bundesallee 5, that his uncle, Fritz had built for the two families (Fritz was his mum’s twin).

April 1935
Frank started to attend the Joseph Lehmann Schule in Berlin founded by the Jüdische
Reform Gemeinde to cater for children kicked out of state schools by the Nazis.

During October
Frank got his brown uniform, 'from the moment the Nazis came to power, there were uniforms everywhere!'

During December
There were air raid exercises in Berlin. Frank was 6/7. It was meant to force others to see Germany as a war like nation.

In September 1935
-Frank's toys were war-like. He had a bomber that he hung from the ceiling that you could hang bombs under from each wing. He also had a tank that could crawl over everything, he had a submarine in the bath, not a rubber duck, it dived when you wound it up. He had a toy gun that shot rubber pellets, everything was war like. It reflected the mood at the time.

In June 1938
Frank and his mother, Toni left for Prague. They were to stay in cheap accommodation and wait for Frank's father, Hermann to join them once his contract had finished in Berlin.

In June 1934 -
Frank and his family went on holiday to Czechoslovakia. Frank had a Czech passport rather than a German one. The family traveled at night. Frank remembers seeing huge lights and planes flying everywhere. He found it interesting yet still felt intimidated.


1st August 1938
Frank's father, Hermann, left the now aryanised Jewish bank, Sigmund Pincus, in Berlin W8, Unter den Linden 49.


29th November 1938
-Frank, his mum and his dad moved into one-bedroom flat in newly-completed block at na kopečku 1915 in the district of Líbeň, Prague VIII (just outside of Prague).

In March 1938
-Frank's family began selling their things from their huge flat in Berlin in order to move to Prague. They decided to take advantage of their Czech nationality and move. There were items of furniture that would usually have been expensive, however, due to the amount of people moving, everything went cheap, including the flat, the Germans benefited from the relocation of Jews very much.
Frank's Words

‘Prague was full of refugees, there were 10s of 1000s of them. These people didn’t speak the language and didn’t have money, most of them had lost their fathers. No one knew what to do!'

During 1939
- The family had refugees come asking for food and shelter. Frank remembers them trying to do something in return despite the fact that they had nothing.
'I remember a man who was a chief steward for a passenger boat, he put all of the china on our table and managed to pull the table cloth out from underneath without a single thing smashing!'
•In December 1938 -
Frank's father, Hermann, volunteered to work for the Jewish Community due to his ability to speak both German and Czech.
•Frank enrolled at a Jewish school. It was nominally a religious (náboženská) school and it was located in the Old Town on the Jáchymova street.


15th March 1939
Germans moved in and immediately put in place the rules of Germany but news rules were added:
-Confiscated your savings and bank accounts.
-Doctors couldn’t practice
-Shopping hours were changed to 1 hour in the afternoon
-Radios and instruments were taken
'I still, to this day have not found my beloved violin! It was taken and redistributed to most likely a German family'.
In Prague
•Frank remembers walking in shoes that were far too small for him. New shoes were not an option, and due to the lack of money that they had, new shoes weren't likely to ever be bought.

In Prague
•Frank had to wear a yellow star.

They had to sew these stars onto their clothes, which in it's own way was an issue, due to the confiscation of sewing machines in March, they only had one were punished if they were found not wearing it.
The Brichta Family
before moving to Prague
•In June 1942
Frank's school in Prague was closed down by German decree.
The Altneuschule (The
Elders) Jewish
Community building in

Frank in a police officers outfit, taken in 1932
In Prague
•There was only one post office in the whole of Prague available for Jewish people, so Frank had to walk miles in order to post letters.
In Prague
•Frank had to make the cigarettes using the tobacco that his father obtained through the black market. The Brichta's flat was the meeting place for several of the people in the block of flats and so the cigarettes were smoked then.

In Prague
•Frank remembers his neighbour illegally listening to the BBC on radio, Frank's father used a saucepan as an amplifying tool against the wall, as if the Germans found out about the radio, their neighbour could be sentenced to death.


28 April 1942
- Frank's friend Kurt Diamant and his mother Gisela, originally refugees in Prague from Vienna were sent to the ghetto and two days later, on 30 April were sent on to the Death camp of Zamosc. Of that transport, (As), of a 1,000 people 19 people survived,. the highest number of survivors of any of the 20 transports sent between 15 January
(to Riga) and 25 August (to Trostinetz). Out of 20,000 people sent to various death camps during that period 25 survived. Neither Kurt nor his mother were among the survivors.
Frank attended a Jewish school. It was nominally a religious (náboženská) school and it was located in the Old Town on the Jáchymova street.
So what did we do at school? I remember doing German, that was of course compulsory, but I knew it anyway and so did allof the refugee children who made up a large part of the class, and school.
We also did Czech grammar which by then I knew too, we did Czech literature but at a very low level, and the geography of Bohemia and Moravia, i.e. its rivers, and as we were confined to Prague and couldn’t go on excursions to give this geography some meaning that was pretty boring.
We had hardly any homework, with the very large classes and a class in the morning and a different one in the afternoon the teachers could not have coped. We did not learn Hebrew and we did not go through the Old Testament in translation even though Dr.Glanzberg had a degree in Semitic languages and the huge Hebrew books in his parents’ house were collectors’ items.
Frank worked at a cemetery in order to
earn pocket money, that of which he spent
on science books.
Above, is a picture of Franks class,
Frank estimates that this picture
was taken in the third week of May
1942, only a few weeks before the
school was closed. There is an arrow
pointing to Frank, who is on the top

1st March,1942
Frank's Aunt Hildegard Wasservogel neé Kohn, born in Breslau, was sent from Berlin to
Auschwitz where she was killed. 55,656 Berlin Jews were deported and killed between 1941 and 1945.

6th March, 1942

- Frank's uncle Fritz Wasservogel sent from Berlin to Auschwitz where he was killed, the couple did not spend their last hours together.


13th July, 1942
Frank and his parents left their flat at na kopečku 1915, Prague 8, and assembled for deportation to Theresienstadt. Transport Di. Their Numbers.: Di554, Di555, Di556.

We were put on a train and soon arrived in the ghetto. Theresienstadt is not far from Prague.

14th July, 1942

Frank and his parents arrived in Theresienstadt.
On my 13th birthday (7th Oct 1942), my parents gave me a pocket watch and a microscope with up to 300x magnification, but that was strictly for my birthday. Both of these items were hidden, both were returned and both were stolen in Teplitz four years later when I started an apprenticeship there. The watch was stolen from the locker of the factory where I kept my winter coat and dustcoat, the microscope from its box kept in the desk of the director of the hostel where I then lived, probably by former members of the Hitlerjugend.
Frank's Words
In Prague

During Frank's time working at the cemetery, Frank was hoeing barefoot and clipped his toe. After a while, he began to feel queasy and walked home. His father used the public phone in the lobby to call one of the only registered doctors in Prague who was Jewish. Dr. Teitelbohm travelled on foot for hours with medication based on Frank's symptoms. Frank had Encephalitis, and thanks to Dr. Teitelbohm, was saved.

The train station at

Frank's mother was put in an over crowded huge hall like room with double bunk beds. It was tremendously overcrowded, something of which Toni wasn't used to. She was put under conditions that were completely different for her. She was surrounded by women, yet she felt alone.
Frank and his father were sent into the loft of one of a Kasernen.
The loft was spacious, however it had never been built to have been inhabited and so the conditions were awful. They had to climb under and over huge beams. Electric light was only sparse and of very low wattage.
Toilets and washrooms were on the floor below and were also used by the inhabitants of the floor below, so it was highly inconvenient and insecure, while out at work anybody could come along and pinch things, it was open plan at its most extreme with a bit more air than anywhere else, in winter there would have been too much of it.

In the Ghetto
•Frank began work in a vegetable garden in the Ghetto. He suffered from Hay Fever terribly and contracted sinusitis twice.
In the Ghetto
•Danish Jews were put in the loft with Frank's father this time, Frank had been moved downstairs with the other youth workers.
Frank and his family were transported
to the ghetto of Theresienstadt and were separated throughout their time there. Food was scarce and rations were given out, however many people died in the ghetto, mostly old people, as their ability to work did not exist anymore and to the Nazis, they were 'useless mouths to feed'.

29th September 1944
- Frank's father left Theresiestadt on transport “El” of 1,500 people, only 79 survived. He had lost his immunity from transportation, he was likely to have been gassed on arrival there on the following day. He was 47 years old.
'We did not say goodbye. May be he did so on purpose. If there was a forlorn hope that we would meet again then we would meet again. If death was to lay in wait for him at the end of the journey, and my mother had been saying for years that Hitler would not allow her to survive, then a farewell now would be an unforgettable heart- breaking event for the survivor.'

12th October 1944
- Frank and his mother boarded a railway carriage similar to the one they boarded in Prague to go to Theresienstadt.
They finally reached Auschwitz and Frank remembers hearing a man shout 'this is a concentration camp'.
'The train came to a halt, the seal on the door was removed, we were ordered out. Others remember the shouting, screaming, threats, whips being brandished, snarling dogs. Nothing like that occurred at the arrival of our transport, there was no need to.'
Frank and his mother were put into two columns; women in the first and men in the second. Frank's mother saw Frank in his line, left hers, came over to him and shook his hand, then returned to her line where she was pointed to the left. Frank's line then went through and he followed his mother yet was pulled to the other side and sent to the right.
Frank, along with the approx 45 others sent to the right, were shaved, washed and given prison garb to wear. Then they were taken to a bunk and told that this was where they were staying. It was winter and the concrete floor was cold, there was only one blanket over five people. On the second night, they were asked to line up in the middle of the room, where a civilian came in and pointed at them to go to his and the SS man with him's side. They were told that they just had to wait a few days and would be taken out to a factory. This was true, on the 19th of October, Frank was among 165 slave labourers chosen to go to Friedland, a branch of Gross- Rosen.

In 1935, at the Nuremberg Rally, The Nazi's
announced the Nuremberg Race Laws
which were new laws based on the principles of
antisemitism. The Nuremberg Race Laws classified people with four German grandparents as "German or Kindred blood", but people were classified as Jews if they descended from three or four Jewish grandparents. Someone with one or two Jewish grandparents was a Mischling (a crossbreed) of "mixed blood". These laws deprived Jews of German citizenship and prohibited racially mixed marriages between Jews and other Germans. Although the laws at first were aimed at Jews, a week after becoming intact the laws applied also to “Gypsies, Negroes or their bastard offspring”.
The Berlin Olympics held in 1936 was a key point of the Nazi's show of culture. Albert Speer, the architect of
the stadium created it first in a modern glass way, and showed the Fuhrer who told him to knock it down and build a Colosseum type building to show how Germans
strive like the Romans.
Adolf Eichmann
Heinrich Himmler
Adolf Hitler
The Eternal Jew Exhibition
Jewish Identity Card
The Nuremberg Synagogue
Jewish Passport
Kristallnacht- The Night of The
Broken Glass
Adolf Hitler's speech to the Reichstag,
30th January 1939
Rudolf Höss
Auschwitz plan with expansion
Zyklon-B, the trade name of a
cyanide-based pesticide.
Sobibor Concentration
Drancy Internment Camp
Nazis choose town of Oświęcim
to make the new concentration
camp - Auschwitz
Yellow Jewish Star of David
to be worn by all Polish Jews
over the age of 10.
The entrance to
Krakow Ghetto
Dr. Josef Mengele
Riga Ghetto
Arthur Liebehenschel
The new kommandant of

March 20, 1933
Dachau Camp was established by Heinrich Himmler, it was located in Germany.
Dachau Camp, made for political


8th May 1945
In Friedland the SS camp commander and guards orders the last Appell, makes a speech asking us to remember how well he had behaved and then they all disappear. The gate was left open, the current switched off. We received advice to leave the camp and spend the night in the nearby woods due to the presence in the neighbourhood of a Ukrainian SS regiment under General Vlasov.

9th May 1945
The Red Army entered Friedland, asked for vodka and watches, offered no help, neither medical, clothing or food.

16th May 1945 -
normal food (milk) after 7 months of beetroot/cellulose soup. Apprx. a week after liberation I made my way by bicycle to the frontier where Czech railwaymen laid on a train for me which took me to Prague. Arrived in Prague which was full of refugees, returning POWs and Jewish ex- prisoners. Stayed with Alicia Brichtová, widow of Oswald Brichta, for one night only. We had left for the ghetto on the understanding that she would send food parcels which she failed to do even when reminded by the occasional card which we could send. We therefore went more hungry than we need have done. She came from Slovakia, then an independent state where, because it was agricultural, food was plentiful. I was allocated a room at the YMCA at first. My digestive system couldn’t cope with the food. I Moved to a school hastily converted into a temporary hostel for the many refugees. Registered with Czech welfare offices which had been quickly set up and were overwhelmed, and with the Red Cross which published lists of survivors abroad .
Frank worked at KZ Gross-Rosen/Kommando Friedland. The central KZ, Gross-Rosen, had 118 such branch (or Aussen-) Kommandos providing slave labour. Friedland is in Southern Silesia, was then part of the German Reich, it is now part of Poland and is called Mieroszow. Frank was a slave labourer, hired from the SS by the management of the firm V.D.M. (Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke and still in existence) to make aircraft propellers for the German Air Force from duralumin castings.

Frank's Theresienstadt
Transport Document
Full transcript