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Journey of Glucose

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Rachel Crossley

on 13 May 2014

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Transcript of Journey of Glucose

Digestion is the chemical breakdown of large food molecules into smaller molecules that can be used by cells
The breakdown occurs when certain specific enzymes are mixed with the food
Glucose in the Digestive System
Journey of Glucose
Chewing breaks food into smaller particles so that chemical digestion can occur faster
Enzymes:
Salivary amylase breaks starch (a polysaccharide) down to maltose (a disaccharide)
Food forms into a bolus
The tongue is muscular and can move food. It pushes food to back where it is swallowed.
Mouth
Acts as an exocrine gland by producing pancreatic juice which empties into the small intestine via a duct.
Acts as an endocrine gland to produce insulin.
Pancreatic juice contains sodium bicarbonate which neutralizes the acidic material from the stomach.
Pancreatic amylase digests starch to maltose.
Pancreas
Glucose in the Circulatory System
Glucose enters the blood stream
Pumping of the heart distributes the glucose in blood to every part of the body
Glucose can't pass through cell membranes alone!
Rachel Crossley
Summer Mercier
Anatomy & Physiology
Thayer

Sodium-dependent hexose transporters carry glucose across the cells
Two proteins help:
Glucose transporter
Insulin
--> Glucose = water base
Pharynx
The respiratory and digestive passages meet in the pharynx. They separate posterior to the pharynx to form the esophagus (leads to the stomach) and trachea (leads to the lungs).
When swallowing, the epiglottis covers the trachea to prevent food from entering.
In the mouth, food is mixed with saliva and formed into a bolus.
Peristalsis in the esophagus moves food from the mouth to the stomach.
Target Cells of Glucose
Liver - Hypatocytes absorb glucose and stores it, to release it to help the body maintain homeostasis.
Muscles - Store and expend the glucose when the muscles have to contract in order to move a person
Stomach
Breakdown of Carbohydrates
Absorbs glucose
Liver
The liver stores glucose as glycogen (animal starch) and breaks down glycogen to release glucose as needed.
This storage-release process maintains a constant glucose concentration in the blood (0.1%).
If glycogen and glucose run short, proteins can be converted to glucose.
Small Intestine
Villi increase the surface area of the intestine. Individual villus cells have microvilli which greatly increase absorptive surface area.
The total absorptive surface area is equivalent to 500 or 600 square meters.
Each villus contains blood vessels.
Peptidases and maltase are embedded within the plasma membrane of the microvilli.
Maltase completes the digestion of disaccharides.
Small Intestine...
Absorbtion is an important function of the small intestine.
Active transport moves glucose into the intestinal cells, then out where they are picked up by capillaries.
Pizza:
Ranked #10 Highest Food in Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates in Pizza
Most important carbohydrate = GLUCOSE
All carbohydrates form glucose when digested.
Glucose is transported around the body via blood and taken into cells to be converted into energy.
Glucose is the essential energy source for your body.
Carbohydrates provide the energy that cells need to survive.
Complex vs. Simple Carbohydrates
Pizza is a complex carb because it has refined starch
Starch must be broken down through digestion before your body can use it as a glucose source
Complex carbohydrates provide a slower and more sustained release of energy than simple carbohydrates
Carbohydrase converts starch into simple sugars
Carbohydrase is produced in 3 places: salivary gland, pancreas and stomach
Glucose, also called "blood sugar" and "dextrose," flows in the bloodstream so that it is available to every cell in your body.
Your cells absorb glucose and convert it into energy to drive the cell. Specifically, a set of chemical reactions on glucose creates ATP, and a phosphate bond in ATP powers most of the machinery in any human cell.
Energy and Glucose
The circulatory system helps move glucose out of the digestive tract and into the body cells
The glucose in the blood induces the pancreas to release insulin so that it can integrate the cells.
When burned in the cells, the glucose produces energy.
If the energy is not immediately needed, the sugar surplus can be stocked in the liver as glycogen.
Fructose and galactose are converted to glucose by the liver.
Glycogen stores are a readily available source of energy to support the demands of physical activity and exercise
Target Cell: Liver
Glucose is the carbohydrate transported by the bloodstream to the various tissues and organs, including the muscles and the brain, where it will be used as energy.
If the body does not need glucose for energy, it stores glucose in the liver and the skeletal muscles in a form called glycogen.
Glycogen stores are used as an energy source when the body needs more glucose than is readily available in the bloodstream (for example, during exercise).
Circulatory System
Muscular & Nervous System
Digestive & Muscular System
Circulatory System
Overview of Systems Involved
Target Cell: Muscle
Glycogen stores are essential for athletic performance, because they serve as an energy reservoir when blood glucose levels are decreased due to high intensity exercise or inadequate carbohydrate intake.
Glycogen stores become depleted as the intensity and duration of the exercise increases. It is important to restore glycogen by consuming carbohydrate on a regular basis.
The glycogen stored in muscle is used directly by that muscle during exercise, it cannot borrow glycogen from other resting muscles
Target Cell: Muscle
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