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Task-based learning.

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Adriana stopa

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Task-based learning.

TASK-BASED LANGUAGE LEARNING TASK BASED INSTRUDTIONS Task-based language learning focuses on the use of authentic language and on asking students to do meaningful tasks using the target language. Such tasks can include visiting a doctor, conducting an interview, or calling customer service for help. Assessment is primarily based on task outcome (in other words the appropriate completion of tasks) rather than on accuracy of language forms. This makes TBLL especially popular for developing target language fluency and student confidence. Theory of Language

Language is primarily a means of making meaning: Task-based learning emphasizes the central role of meaning in language use.
Multiple models of language inform task-based learning: Advocates of task-based learning draw on structural, functional, and interactional models of language.
Lexical units are central in language use and language learning: Vocabulary is here used to include the consideration of lexical phrases, sentence stems and collocations.
“Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of language acquisition: Speaking and trying to communicate with others is considered the basis for second language acquisition in task-based learning.

Theory of Learning
Tasks provide both the input and the output processing necessary for language acquisition:TBL proposes that the task is the pivot point for stimulation of input-output practice, negotiation of meaning, and transactionally focused conversation.
Task activity and achievement are motivational: Tasks are also said to improve learner motivation and therefore promote learning.
Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purposes: Specific tasks can be designed to facilitate the use and learning of particular aspects of language as they provide a vehicle for the presentation of appropriate target language samples. Materials:
Resources books
Newspaper Magazine
Radio programs
TV Internet
Board Worksheets
Task Based Instruction Techniques -> Types of Tasks
LISTING: Processes - Brainstorming, fact-finding.
ORDERING AND SORTING: Processes - Sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifying. COMPARING: Processes - Matching, finding similarities, finding differences.
PROBLEM SOLVING: Processes - Analysing real or hypothetical situations, reasoning, and decision making.
SHARING PERSONAL EXPERIENCES: Processes - Narrating, describing, exploring and explaining attitudes, opinions, reactions. CREATIVE TASKS: Processes - Brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem solving. TASK CYCLE Pre-task.
Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class, highlights useful words and phrases, helps students understand task instructions and prepare. Task cycle
Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors.
Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orally or in writing) how they did the task, what they decided or discovered. Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written reports and compare results. (Ss receive feedback on their level of success on completing the task). Language Focus
Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text or transcript of the recording. Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and patterns occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TASK-BASED LEARNING

*Tasks that involve real communication are essential for language learning.
*Learners learn language by interacting communicatively and purposefully while engaged in the activities and tasks.
*The focus is on process rather than product.
*Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.
*Activities and tasks of a task-based syllabus are sequenced according to difficulty.
*The difficulty of a task depends on a range of factors including the previous experience of the learner, the complexity of the task, the language required to undertake the task, and the degree of support available.
*Errors are not necessarily the result of bad learning, but are part of the natural process of interlanguage forms gradually moving towards target forms. Disvantages
*TBL requires a high level of creativity and initiative on the part of the T.
*TBL requires resources beyond the textbooks and related materials usually found in language classrooms.
*T-B instruction is not teacher-centered and it requires individual and group responsibility and commitment on the part of Ss.
*There is a risk for learners to achieve fluency at the expense of accuracy. Advantages
*TBL is applicable and suitable for Ss of all ages and backgrounds.
*Ss will have a much more varied exposure to language with TBL.
*Ss are free to use whatever vocabulary and grammar they know, rather than just the TL of the lesson.
*Allows meaningful communication. Ss will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as L forms.
*Encourages Ss to be more ambitious in the L they use Role of T
* Facilitator and chairperson -Sets up the tasks and helps Ss to complete them.
*Supervises the reporting of the task.
*Provides vocabulary needed
*Gives suggestions on revising, rewriting & presenting material -Gives feedback on presentation and written material.
Role of Ss
*Active participants. They have to work with others and be collaborative
* Needs - guessing meaning from context, rephrasing & negotiating meaning.

Use of L1
Can be used to clarify instructions Should be used less as the class progresses
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