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Transcript of Task-based learning.
Language is primarily a means of making meaning: Task-based learning emphasizes the central role of meaning in language use.
Multiple models of language inform task-based learning: Advocates of task-based learning draw on structural, functional, and interactional models of language.
Lexical units are central in language use and language learning: Vocabulary is here used to include the consideration of lexical phrases, sentence stems and collocations.
“Conversation” is the central focus of language and the keystone of language acquisition: Speaking and trying to communicate with others is considered the basis for second language acquisition in task-based learning.
Theory of Learning
Tasks provide both the input and the output processing necessary for language acquisition:TBL proposes that the task is the pivot point for stimulation of input-output practice, negotiation of meaning, and transactionally focused conversation.
Task activity and achievement are motivational: Tasks are also said to improve learner motivation and therefore promote learning.
Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purposes: Specific tasks can be designed to facilitate the use and learning of particular aspects of language as they provide a vehicle for the presentation of appropriate target language samples. Materials:
Task Based Instruction Techniques -> Types of Tasks
LISTING: Processes - Brainstorming, fact-finding.
ORDERING AND SORTING: Processes - Sequencing, ranking, categorizing, classifying. COMPARING: Processes - Matching, finding similarities, finding differences.
PROBLEM SOLVING: Processes - Analysing real or hypothetical situations, reasoning, and decision making.
SHARING PERSONAL EXPERIENCES: Processes - Narrating, describing, exploring and explaining attitudes, opinions, reactions. CREATIVE TASKS: Processes - Brainstorming, fact-finding, ordering and sorting, comparing, problem solving. TASK CYCLE Pre-task.
Introduction to topic and task: Teacher explores the topic with the class, highlights useful words and phrases, helps students understand task instructions and prepare. Task cycle
Task: Students do the task, in pairs or small groups. Teacher monitors.
Planning: Students prepare to report to the whole class( orally or in writing) how they did the task, what they decided or discovered. Report: Some groups present their reports to the class, or exchange written reports and compare results. (Ss receive feedback on their level of success on completing the task). Language Focus
Analysis: Students examine and discuss specific features of the text or transcript of the recording. Practice: Teacher conducts practice or new words, phrases and patterns occurring in the data, either during or after the analysis. GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF TASK-BASED LEARNING
*Tasks that involve real communication are essential for language learning.
*Learners learn language by interacting communicatively and purposefully while engaged in the activities and tasks.
*The focus is on process rather than product.
*Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.
*Activities and tasks of a task-based syllabus are sequenced according to difficulty.
*The difficulty of a task depends on a range of factors including the previous experience of the learner, the complexity of the task, the language required to undertake the task, and the degree of support available.
*Errors are not necessarily the result of bad learning, but are part of the natural process of interlanguage forms gradually moving towards target forms. Disvantages
*TBL requires a high level of creativity and initiative on the part of the T.
*TBL requires resources beyond the textbooks and related materials usually found in language classrooms.
*T-B instruction is not teacher-centered and it requires individual and group responsibility and commitment on the part of Ss.
*There is a risk for learners to achieve fluency at the expense of accuracy. Advantages
*TBL is applicable and suitable for Ss of all ages and backgrounds.
*Ss will have a much more varied exposure to language with TBL.
*Ss are free to use whatever vocabulary and grammar they know, rather than just the TL of the lesson.
*Allows meaningful communication. Ss will be exposed to a whole range of lexical phrases, collocations and patterns as well as L forms.
*Encourages Ss to be more ambitious in the L they use Role of T
* Facilitator and chairperson -Sets up the tasks and helps Ss to complete them.
*Supervises the reporting of the task.
*Provides vocabulary needed
*Gives suggestions on revising, rewriting & presenting material -Gives feedback on presentation and written material.
Role of Ss
*Active participants. They have to work with others and be collaborative
* Needs - guessing meaning from context, rephrasing & negotiating meaning.
Use of L1
Can be used to clarify instructions Should be used less as the class progresses