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Chem 30!!!!

Review Project

Raymond Gallelli

on 7 January 2013

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Transcript of Chem 30!!!!

By Unit 1 - Energy Thermodynamics Kinetic Energy- Ek=mct
Potential Energy- Ep=nH
Ep and Ek=J(joules)
m= g (grams)
c= j/gC
t= tempature change C
n=number of moles
H=molar enthalpy Ep=Ek
Bomb Calorimeter
Q=enthalpy change
C=heat capacity(J/C) Hess's Law Notes 3 types of motion -Translational, Rotational, Vibrational

Energy is neither created or destroyed

Isolated System- neither matter or energy can move in or out.

Closed System- matter can't leave but energy can.

Open system- matter and energy can leave.

Calorimetry- Technological process of measuring energy changes in an isolated system.

Endothermic- Absorbs Heat, positive value ex) ice to water

Exothermic- Releases Heat, negative value ex) condensation

Hess's Law- The difference is the energy gained or lost in a reaction.

Activation Energy- Energy that must be overcome for a reaction to occur.

Catalyst- Increase rate of chemical reaction but is not consumed itself

Bond Energy- Energy required to break a chemical bond Unit 2- Equilibrium Notes Equilibrium- defined empirically as a closed system with constant macroscopic properties.
Brosnstod Lowry- Acids are proton donors, bases are proton acceptors.
Amphiprotic- Substance can act as both a proton donor and acceptor.
Conjugate acid base pair consist of two substances that differ by a proton(hyrdogen)
Buffer- Weak conjugate acid base pair.
Le chatelier's Principle-If a stress is applied to a system in a dynamic equilibrium the system changes to relive the stress. At equilibrium all concentrations are
 Forward and reverse processes are
 No macroscopic evidence
 Atomic level shows evidence of occurring
forward and reverse processes
 Must be closed system Always Break up ionic compounds



All energy comes from the sun 1.List all entites
2. Label acids and bases according to table
3.Identify SA and SB
4.Write equations
5.Predict the position of the equilibrium 5 Step Method Extra If Sa is over Sb your products are favored.

ka is greater than 1 its a strong acid

Acids- taste sour, solid liquid or gas at STAP, PH less than 7 feel grippy.

Bases- Taste bitter, slippery, solid at STAP, PH greater than 7, neautralize acids. For a system to be in Equilibrium Equilibrium Constant K- a mathmatitical relationship involving concentrations of reactants and products that yields a conant value. ( at a spefic temputure) Equilibrium Law I.C.E Table- used to arrage the initial change and equilibrium concentration in a tabular form. Stress

Add more reactants
Add more products
Endothermic add heat
Endotheric loseheat
Exothermic add heat
Eothermic lose heat
Volume up/Pressure down
Volume down/Pressure up Shifts

to products
to reactants
to products
to reactants
to reactants
to products
to side with most moles
to side with least moles Unit 3- Electrochemistry Notes -Redox- Both reduction and oxidation occuring
-Oxidizing agent(OA)- a chemical species that accepts electrons in a reaction.
-Reducing Agent(RA)- a chemical species that donates electrons in a reaction.
-Disproportionation- sometime same chemical species is the OA and RA.
-First eletirc cell developed in 1800 by Alessando Volta, cells consist of two conductors called electrodes and a conducting solution called the electrolyte.
-Positive electrode called cathode , and negative one called anode.
-Primary cells are non rechargeable cells, are dead when limiting reagent runs out.
-Secondary cells are rechargeable, chemical reaction can be reversed.
-Voltaic cell are spontaneous, chemical to electrical energy and have a salt bridge.
-Electrolysis cell is non-spontaneous, eletrical to chemical, and have a battery.
-Cell potential E=cathode-anode
Production of elements, Electroplating, and refining metals all use electrolysis/ electrolytic cells.
-Sacrifice anode must be a stronger RA so it reacts instead of the metal. LEO says GER
Loss electron oxidation
Gain electon reduction

OIL RIG- Oxidation is loss
Reduction is gain If OA is over RA its spontaneous

If RA is over OA its non-spontaneous 5 Steps to Predict Reaction 1. List entities.
2.Find Strongest OA and write out the reduction half reaction
3.Find strongest OA and write out oxidation hald reaction
4. Balance electrons.
5. Write out net ionic equation and label OA and Ra's, then write if its spontaneous or not. Balancing Redox Equations 1. Divide into half reactions
2. Balance everything but H and O
3. Balance oxygen by adding H20 to side that needs 0
4. Balance hydrogen by adding H to side that needs it
5 Balance out charges by adding electrons


6. Add OH to both sides to equal number of H ions
7. Combine H and OH to form water and cancel out what
is on both sides Balancing Redox Equations with oxidation #'s 1. Try to balance normal way
2. Check make sure net charge is same on both sides
3. Determine oxidation numbers, see if its redox
4. Determine the net increase in oxidation numbers for the element being oxidized and the net decrease in oxidation number for the element that is reduced.
5. determine a ratio of oxidized to reduced atoms that would yeild a net increase in oxidation number equal to the net decrease in oxidation number( ration electrons lost to gained)
6. Balance out electrons
7. Balance rest of equation. Stiochiometry 1. Balance chemical reaction.
2. Determine given info and what you are required to find.
3. Determine moles of the given species.
4. Molar ratio unknown/known
5. Determin required units of the species you are required to find
6. Statement http://themedicalcat.blogspot.ca/2011/07/oxidation-numbers-oxidation-reduction.html ne=it/f ne=moles of electrons
i= current(amps)
t= time(seconds)
f= faradays constant Unit 4- Organics Notes Organic compounds- contain carbon, exceptions being, oxides, cyonides, and ionic compounds.
Hydrocarbon- organic compounds contaning carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms.
Alkane- single bond, alkene doudble bond, alkyne triple bond.
Isomerism- possible for same number of atoms of carbon and other elements to have more than one arrangment.
Alkyl branch- only has carbon and hydrogen in the branch prefix(yl)
Hydrogenation- Conberts unsaturated(double/triple bonds) hydrocarbons into saturated( single bond) hydrogcarbon.
Cracking- Hydro, catalyst, ethene, dehydrogenation, thermal, reforming.
Aliphatic- everything. Aromatic-Benzene
Fractionation- using different boiling points of the compounds to seperate them out of the oil.
Organic Halides- one or more hydrogens have been replaced with a halogen(group 17)
Alcohols- have one or more hydroxly group( OH)
Carboxylic Acids- Carboxyl group COOH
Esters- Functional group COO, similar to carboxylic acid but H is replaced with a hydrocarbon branch. Responsible for most odors.
10-dec General Formulas

Alkane CnH2n+2
and Alkenes CnH2n
and Alkynes CnH2n-2
Cycloalkynes CnH2n-4

C6H6 ABCDEF Addition Breaks Carbon Double/triple Elimination Forms Naming Hydrocarbons 1. Find the longest chain of carbons
2.Number it from end closest to the branches
3.Identify the brannches in alphibetical order
4.If more than one type of the same branch use di/tri
5.Write name 1. Find longest chain that contain double/triple bonds2. Number states with end closest to double/triple bonds3.The number of the carbon that the double/triple bond occurs on goes before the last three letters of the compounds name Alkene's and Alkyne's Organic Halides 1. Name parent chain
2.Treat the organic halides as a branch F=fluoro
I=iodo Alcohols 1. From parent chain drop e at end and add ol
2. The number of the carbons that has OH branch goes before ol. Carboxylic Acids 1. Parent Chain
2. Double/triple bonds
3. e at the end is replaced with oic acid Esters 1. First part of name is from the alkyl group from the alcohol.
2. Second part of the name is from the acid- instead of "ic" its becomes "ate". Relationships The basic forumlas are used threw out the units, along with how you write out equations.
Redox tables and conjugate acid base pairs have simular format.
In Electrochemistry the steps of balancing are simular to the steps in Organic for naming.
Catalysts are used in Energy and Organic unit.

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