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Transcript of ROMA
Ancient Rome was referred to as “the City of Seven Hills.”
Rome, Italy--The Eternal City
Altitude:14m / 49ft
Area:1,285 km2 (580 sq mi)
capital of the Italian Republic.
It is the most populous and largest municipality in Italy and is among Europe’s major capitals in terms of the amount of terrain it covers.
It is the city with the highest concentration of historical and architectural riches in the world.
Over 16% of the world’s cultural treasures are located in Rome (70% in all of Italy).
With around 52 thousand hectares of agricultural land, Rome is Europe’s greenest city. Rome is Europe’s largest agricultural municipality with 517 square metres of agriculture accounting for 40% of its total surface.
Rome is also the heart of Catholic Christianity.
It is the only city in the world to host an entire foreign state within its confines, the enclave of the Vatican City, and it is for this very reason that it is often referred to as the capital of two States.
In addition to the municipal emblem, there is the Capitoline wolf, the bronze statue depicting the legendary she-wolf suckling the twins Romulus and Remus
olosseum, ancient Rome’s largest amphitheater, which was also listed in 2007 as one of the seven wonders of the modern world (the only one in Europe)
The dome of St. Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican, dominating the entire city and symbolizing Christianity
The symbol of the city in antiquity was the military effigy of an imperial eagle, while in the Middle Ages it was a lion, denoting supremacy.
URBE : in ancient times the word Urbs was automatically used to mean Rome itself.
CAPUT MUNDI : capital of the world
URBE AETERNA : The Eternal City
According to tradition the ancient city was
founded by Romulus
(after whom it is named) in 753 bc on the
; as it grew it spread to the other six hills of Rome (
Aventine, Caelian, Capitoline, Esquiline, Quirinal, and Viminal
). Rome was ruled by kings until the
expulsion of Tarquinius Superbus
in 510 bc led to the establishment of the
. By the mid 2nd century bc Rome had subdued the whole of Italy and had come to
dominate the western Mediterranean and the Hellenistic world in the east
, acquiring the first of the overseas possessions that became the
. By the time of the empire’s fall the city was overshadowed politically by Constantinople, but emerged as the seat of the papacy and as the
spiritual capital of Western Christianity
. In the 14th and 15th centuries Rome became a
centre of the Renaissance
. It remained under papal control, forming part of the Papal States, until 1871, when it was made the capital of a unified Italy.
Etymology of "ROME"
, one of the traditional founders of Rome, with his brother Remus. The twin sons of Mars by a Vestal Virgin, Romulus and Remus were abandoned at birth but were found and suckled by a she-wolf and brought up by a shepherd family. Remus is said to have been killed by Romulus during an argument about the new city.
Old English, from Old French Rome, from Latin Roma, of uncertain origin. "The original Roma quadrata was the fortified enclosure on the Palatine hill," according to Tucker, who finds "no probability" in derivation from *sreu- "flow," and suggests the name is "most probably" from *
(cf. urbs, robur) and otherwise, "but less likely" from *
"hill" (cf. Sanskritvarsman- "height, point," Lithuanian virsus "upper").
Another suggestion is that it is from Etruscan (cf.
, former name of Tiber River). Common in proverbs, e.g. Rome was not buylt in one daye (1540s), for when a man doth to Rome come, he must do as there is done (1590s), All roads alike conduct to Rome (1806).
GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE
Geography of Rome is characterized by the
The Tiber River
. Rome city situated on the
eastern banks of river Tiber
has a geographical position of 41° 54' N and 12° 29' E. Rome lies to the
west of the Apennine Mountains
that forms the backbone of peninsular Italy. Being
close to the Tyrrhenian Sea
, Rome experiences a Mediterranean climate.
The seven hills were separated by marshy land and the River Tiber. Of these seven hills, the Caelian, Esquiline, Quirinal and Viminal hills were portions of a
. The Aventine, Capitoline, and Palatine hills formed the
western group of hills
In ancient Rome each of the seven hills had separate walled cities
from the Apennine Mountainssouth-westwards to the Tyrrhenian Sea after passing by Rome
. This river of length
has played a significant role in shaping Rome's history and culture.
Rome's historical centre, outlined by the enclosing
Rome climate very broadly is of the '
' variety. The
warm to mild,
occurs during the winter months between
October to January
season lasts from
June to September
with temperatures ranging between a maximum of 30° C to a minimum of 14° C. The daily range of temperature averages at 14° C. The winter season extends from December to March with temperatures varying between 3° C to 16° C. The months of April, May, October and November are very pleasant with temperatures varying between 7° C and 23° C.
Rome being in the Mediterranean climatic region receives moderate rainfall throughout the year. Rainfall is heavy between October to January, which is about 40 cm. Rome Mediterranean climate being conducive to travel throughout the year is always thronged by visitors.
Pinciano - Parioli - Flaminio
Auditorium Parco Della Musica
The Borghese Gallery
La Moschea - The Mosque
Fontana del Babuino
Piazza San Lorenzo In Lucina
Piazza del Popolo
Traditional Shopping Streets
The Streets of Antiques
Navona - Campo de Fiori - Pantheon - Via Giulia
Campo de Fiori
Sacred Area of Largo Argentina
The Fountain of the Four Rivers
Streets for Some Original Shopping
Colosseo - Palatino - Fori - Campidoglio
Terraces of the Vittoriano
Basilica di Massenzio
The Portico of Octavia
Fountain of the Tortoises
Aventino - Terme di Caracalla - Circo Massimo
Trastevere - Testaccio
Prati - Vaticano
Gianicolo - Monteverde
Termini - Piazza della Repubblica - Via Veneto
Ostiense - Garbatella -
Esquilino - Monti
Pigneto - San Lorenzo
Appia - San Giovanni
Salario - Trieste
Mouth of Truth
The Savello Park and Garden of Oranges
The Rose Garden
Temple of Portunus
The Baths of Caracalla
Museo di Roma in Trastevere
Piazza Di Santa Maria in Trastevere
The Flower Market
Basilica of St. Peter in Vatican
Vatican Museums and Sistine Chapel
Basilica of St. Mary of the Angels and the Martyrs
Palazzo Della Civilta Italiana
Papal Basilica of St. Paul's Outside the Walls
Auditorium Di Mecenate
Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore
The Appian Way
Basilica of St. John
Borghetto Dei Pescatori
Parco Archelogico Di Ostia Antica
Parco Archeologico Di Ostia Antica
The Roman Theater of Ancient Ostia
The Port of Rome
based on fresh vegetables
(the king is definitely the artichoke, whether deep fried, simmered in olive oil with garlic and mint, or “alla giudia”),
not expensive cuts of meats
(the so called “quinto quarto,” meaning mainly innards, cooked with herbs and hot chilli pepper).
deep fried, tasty appetizers
(such as salted cod and filled zucchini blossoms)
sharp “pecorino cheese"
(made from sheep’s milk from the nearby countryside)
pasta, a staple for every Italian, and therefore every Roman
. From “carbonara” to spaghetti “ajo e ojo” (simple but so effective, with its fiery mix of olive oil, garlic and chili pepper), from rigatoni “con pajata” to a hearty, fragrant soup such as “pasta e ceci.”
21st April, Rome’s Christmas
, celebrating, in costume, with cultural events and festivities, the date traditionally believed to be when Romulus founded the city (753 A.D.).
1st May, Labour Day
. The three main unions together organize a free concert in Piazza Porta San Giovanni which annually attracts an audience of hundreds of thousands (1,000,000 in 2008).
2nd June, Republic Day
. A military parade traditionally marches down Via dei Fori Imperiali to Piazza Venezia.
Festa de Noantri
. One of the city’s oldest festivals is held in Trastevere on the
first Saturday after 16th July
on the Feast of the “Madonna del Carmelo”.
Nightlife in the Capital
Fondazione Pastificio Cerere
Monumental Cemetery of Verano