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The Middle Ages+Crusades

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Mark Twain Carroll

on 9 February 2017

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Transcript of The Middle Ages+Crusades

The Middle Ages
-Born in 742
-Was very religious and maintained a close alliance with the Pope his entire life
-Became King of the Franks in 768 and was co-ruler with his brother Carloman
-Brother died suddenly without reason in 771, was the sole ruler
Conquests of Charlemagne



-The Moors were a Muslim group that came to dominate Spain

-Originally from North Africa

-The Franks seized Moorish land in the Mediterranean Sea and in northern Spain

-These conquest kept the Muslims from gaining any strong foothold in western Europe

-Moors will remain in Spain till the 1300's
A New Emperor
-Pope Leo III was chased out of the Vatican by Romans

-Roman people were tired of the Pope overstepping his bounds

-Leo went to Charlemagne who promised to restore him to power

-Charlemagne delivered, and Leo declared him emperor in 800

-Feudalism was the economic system in the Middle Ages
-It was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that existed between the 9th and 15th centuries
-Feudalism was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for work
-The backbone of European feudalism was manorialism
-Peasants rent a plot of land from the Lord
-A % of the peasant crop goes to the Lord for his profit, the peasants keep the rest
-The common field is for all the peasants living on the land to farm on
-Peasants must fight for their lord at his command, and they can only marry with his approval
-Manor lord must provide protection for his peasants
Rise of Chivalry+Knighthood
-Middle Ages were full of constant warfare
-Nobles (even ones under the control of the same king) would fight each other regularly
-Society was ultra-violent so the most important skill was__________________
-Combat experts pledged loyalty to Lords/Nobles...known as_______________________
-By 1100's a code of conduct and behavior had developed that warriors were expected to live by
Knights and Knighthood
-A knight was a warrior granted an honorary title of "knighthood" by a monarch or other political leader
-Used mostly for military service to the king/country
-Traditionally only mounted warriors were knights for 2 reasons
-Knighthood was considered a class of lower nobility
-Knights were expected to follow a code of conduct
-This code was know as chivalry
-The 5 tenants of chivalry are

The Code of Chivalry
1. Knights were to protect others who can not protect themselves, such as widows, children, and elders
2. Knights were to be strong, extremely disciplined, and highly skilled as warriors
3. Knights vowed to be loyal, generous, and noble
4. Knights were required to tell the truth at all times and always respect the honor of women
5. Knights were to guard the honer of all other knights
6. Knights were always to obey their lords/kings
7. Knights could never refuse a challenge from an equal or turn their back on an enemy
8. Knights were to live for honor and glory, not for reward
9. Knights were to love God and protect the Church
10. Knights were expected to finish all tasks they started to the end
The Growth of the Church
-The crowning of Charlemagne by the Church was an example of its growing power into politics
-Problems would arise when kings interfered in religious matters or clergy interfered in politics
-The Church's power came from 3 places
-Pope had the power of excommunication and interdict to control kings

Otto and the Holy Roman Empire
-throughout the years 400-900 western Europe came to be dominated by the Frankish Kingdom

-in central Europe (mostly modern-day Germany), the barbarian tribes had also been forming small kingdoms of their own

-they were all German, but never united into one country like the Franks

-in 962, King Otto I of Saxony had the idea to form a military alliance of the small Germanic kingdoms

-this alliance was called the Holy Roman Empire

-it was supported by the Catholic Church and served as a counter-weight to the Frankish Kingdom
Frederick I and Fall of the Holy Roman Empire
-Frederick I was a strong ruler that kept the many different lords+nobles in the Holy Roman Empire united
-Would frequently attack southern Italy b/c of its wealth
-This was hurting the wealth of the Church as well and angered Pope Alexander III
-Frederick refused to end his raids so the Pope allied with the wealthy southern Italians to oppose Holy Roman Empire
-Fought Battle of Legnano, which was a surprise victory for the Italians
-Frederick was a broken leader and the Holy Roman Empire fragmented after his defeat

European Invaders
-Wars in Europe were not just between nobles or European kings
-Europe also suffered invasion from 2 major groups
-These were extensive conflicts that would last over several centuries
-originally from Scandinavia
-many beliefs people hold about Vikings are usually not true (ie...horned helmets/uncivilized)
-Vikings colonized many areas of northern Europe
-many cities in_____________are Vikings settlements
-Vikings were primarily land raiders
-would attack coastal villages all over Europe in search of wealth
-pagans who clung to their traditional____________faith very strongly
-particularly violent towards Frankish/Christian settlements due to religious wars
Norse Mythology
-there are several different worlds in Norse religion
-Asgard is where the gods live, Midgard is for man

-Odin--most powerful+leader of the gods, rules Asgard, has many children
-Frigg--wife of Odin who can see the future
-Sol--god of the sun
-Mina--goddess of the moon
-Dagr--god of the day
-Gefjon--goddess of virginity+farming
-Freyja--goddess of beauty+fertility
-Freyr--god of weather, royalty, and peace
-Thor--god of thunder, lightning, and strength

-warriors who die in battle go to Valhalla, the great hall of Odin
-in Valhalla warriors eternally eat+drink at a never ending feast, dance and bang beautiful women, and battle each other for sport
Viking Ships
-Viking ships were known for their flexibility and slenderness
-Slenderness allowed them to navigate________________
-Ships ranged from 55-75 feet long
-Used oars and sails for navigation/movement
-Important in Viking burials
The Crusades
-series of religious expeditionary wars
-expeditionary warfare is the organization of a country's military to fight abroad, far from established bases+support (ie Alex the Great in India or the Persians in Greece)
-the Crusades were blessed by the Catholic Church
-goal was to restore Christian access to the holy places in and near Jerusalem
-Jerusalem is a holy city for who...
-historians usually agree there were 9 Crusades
-only the early Crusades were somewhat successful
-the Crusade movement was started in 1071 when the Byzantine Army was crushed by the Turks and Christians lost access to Jerusalem
-Byzantine emperor Alexis I worried all of Asia Minor would be overrun by Muslims and he called upon the Church+Western European leaders for help
-the term "crusade" comes from a French phrase meaning "take up the cross"
Response from Western Europe
-Pope Urban II agreed to help the Byzantines
-response was overwhelmingly positive among the people of Europe
-3 reasons why:
1. Crusades were an outlet for religious enthusiasm
2. The "Just War" doctrine
3. The promise of salvation upon death if fighting for the Holy Land
Just War Theory
-a doctrine of military ethics and Catholic origin
-says a violent conflict ought to meet philosophical, religious or political criteria
-several theories of "just war" existed before the Christian idea
-Christian idea begins with 2 saints/philosophers
St. Augustine Theory:
1. A Christian could be a soldier and serve God and country honorably

2. God has given the sword to government for good reason

3. Christians as part of government should not be ashamed to protect peace and punish wickedness
St. Thomas Aquinas Theory
1. War must occur for a good and just purpose rather than for self-gain (for example, "in the nation's interest" is not just) or as an exercise of power
2. Just war must be waged by a properly instituted authority such as the state
3. Peace must be a central motive even in the midst of violence
Pope Urban II+The First Crusade
-Urban II campaigned across Europe for the first Crusade
-Urged kings+nobles to stop unjust wars to fight a righteous war in the Holy Land
-Detailed the destruction of Christian holy sites+pilgrims by the Muslims
-Emphasized the Muslim military threat
-Promised salvation+riches
Jewish Massacres
-religious zeal prompted attacks on non-Christians all across Europe
-Jews were targeted for the most violence and were considered as bad as Muslims, but closer to home
-attacked by peasant armies as well as knights+soldiers
-Thousands were killed, even when bishops+priests attempted to protect the Jews
Orders of Knights
-before and during the Crusades, many knights would get together and form military orders
-this would be a collection on knights not loyal to a kings/country, but loyal to God/Jesus and each other
-military orders were designed to defend the faith against non-believers (primarily Muslims)
-famous orders include
Knights Templar
-Templars were the most powerful of the orders during the Crusades
-Templar knights were known for being the most skilled combatants
-Non-knight members controlled a major banking system in Europe, one of the first
-Also known for the construction of many churches and castles throughout Europe
-Initiation into the Knights Templar was very secretive
-Their power and secrecy led the Templars to be viewed with suspicion after the Crusades ended
-Hundreds were hunted down, tortured, and killed by King Phillip IV of France
-He was in massive debt to the Templars and did not want to pay
Knights Hospitaller
-also known as the Knights of St. John or Knights of Malta
-founded in Jerusalem before Muslims conquered the city
-mission was to provide care for poor, sick or injured pilgrims in the Holy Land
-became a military order after Jerusalem was captured by the Muslims in 1099
-eventually fragmented into several different orders
Teutonic Knights
-similar to the Hospitallers, but formed in Europe
-formed to aid Christians on their pilgrimages to the Holy Land and to establish hospitals
-small number of actual knights, but participated in combat during the Crusades
-still exists today and its members are priests and nuns
Knights of the Cross and Red Star
-primary concern is medical care and still exists today by providing funding for hospitals
-also place a large emphasis on education
-limited military role in the Crusades, but its few warriors were considered elite
-known to fight alongside civilians of any religious faith in order to protect them
First Crusade
-began on November 27, 1095
-thousands of peasants and knights from all over Europe traveled first to Constantinople with plans to re-capture Jerusalem
-peasants and knights were split into 2 armies in Constantinople
-peasant army was poorly trained and broke up before reaching the Holy Land
-army of knights was also in trouble because no one could decide on a leader
-Muslims were outmatched but practiced "scorched earth" policy while retreating
-Scorched earth...
-many knights died of heat and starvation in the desert
-from 1097-1098 the Crusaders engaged Muslim forces in a series of battles and captured several important cities in the Holy Land
-Crusaders managed to reach Jerusalem in July, 1099
-city was placed under siege by 13,300 Crusaders, many of whom were starving
-from July 7-14 all the Crusaders attempts to storm the city wall were repulsed
-both Jews and Muslims fought together to defend Jerusalem
-Crusaders managed to break into the city on July 15
-the Massacre of Jerusalem followed
Siege of Jerusalem
Massacre of Jerusalem
-Crusaders poured into the city and slaughtered Muslim men, women, and children
-Jewish people were also killed indiscriminately
-Jews and Muslims attempted to hide in religious buildings such as Dome of the Rock or Solomon's Temple, but Crusaders showed no mercy

-"10,000 were killed. Indeed, if you had been there you would have seen our feet coloured to our ankles with the blood of the slain. But what more shall I relate? None of them were left alive; neither women nor children were spared"-

-all told some 70,000 civilians were killed on July 15, 1099
End of the 1st Crusade
-the fall of Jerusalem in July, 1099 marked the end of the 1st Crusade
-it was considered a success since Jerusalem had been taken and parts of the Holy Land came under the control of Crusaders
-many knights returned home
2nd Crusade
-lasted from 1147-1149
-Crusaders attempted to expand Euro power in the Holy Land, but failed
-were more successful at fighting Muslims in Spain and Portugal
3rd Crusade---1187-1192
-most important for the Muslims
-Muslim tribes had been divided and fighting each other since the end of the 1st Crusade
-were united by a charismatic leader named Saladin
-Saladin used his large, united army to quickly take back all the Holy Land except for Jerusalem and a few major coastal cities
-Saladin place Jerusalem under siege in 1187, and it fell back into Muslim hands after a month
-allowed citizens to leave if they payed a ransom, otherwise were sold into slavery
-Pope Urban III died of a heart attack when he heard the news
-only the city of Tyre remained in Christian hands by 1188
-Europe responded by launching the 3rd Crusade
Europe Responds
-European forces were led by Richard the Lionheart of England, Frederick Barbarossa of the HRE, and Phillip II of France
-Led an army of 110,000 soldiers
-Crusaders quickly re-captured the cities of Arsuf and Acre
-Euro leadership was divided as none of the 3 main leaders could decide who was really in command
-Jerusalem was again put under siege, but Saladin's forces held the city
-Final fight was the Battle of Jaffa, in which the Crusaders and Muslims fought to a stalemate
-Saladin+Richard agreed to negotiate a peace in 1192
-2 terms of the negotiations
1. Jerusalem+most of the Holy Land remains in Muslim control
2. Christian pilgrims are free to travel to the Holy Land as much as they want and are guaranteed protection
Crusades 4-9
-the remaining Crusades took course over another a century
-all were attempts to retake Jerusalem, all failed
-later ones essentially became glory seeking treasure hunts
1. Bitterness to the Christian faith, especially among Muslims
2. Loss of faith in the Pope+Church
3. Rise of religion as an excuse for violence
1. Euro culture spreads east
2. Mid-Eastern tech + resources go west
3. New trade routes are opened
-One of the most devastating pandemics in human history
- Epidemic of an infectious disease that spreads through human populations across a large region= multiple continents or worldwide
-Lasted between 1346 and 1354
-It killed 200,000,000 people worldwide
-Europe was the hardest hit, but Middle East also suffered
-Wiped out 60% of Europe's population
-Took 150 years for populations to recover
The Bubonic Plague
-zoonotic disease
-carried by small rodents and their fleas
-the Black Death was carried by rats
-originated in China and traveled west over trade routes
-Symptoms include: high fever, extreme pain, cough, vomiting blood, chills, seizures, cramps, and swollen lymph bulbs
-killed in 2-7 days
Devastation of Europe
-Europeans had very little immunity
-Spain, France, and Italy lost around 70-80% of their populations
-Dead lined the streets and thousands of towns were wiped out
-Mass graves were dug outside towns and people dropped dead by the hour
-Life was cheapened by the amount death, wars increased and people were looking for something to blame
-Wars and persecutions increased
-800,000 Jews were killed, lepers and people with acne were murdered, foreigners were also killed
-People thought it was the end of the world
-How did the Black Death end?
-Plagues continued to strike Europe for the next 600 years off and on
They died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in ... ditches and covered with earth. And as soon as those ditches were filled, more were dug. And I, Agnolo di Tura ... buried my five children with my own hands ... And so many died that all believed it was the end of the world.
How many valiant men, how many fair ladies, breakfast with their kinfolk and the same night supped with their ancestors in the next world! The condition of the people was pitiable to behold. They sickened by the thousands daily, and died unattended and without help. Many died in the open street, others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies. Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies, which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches, like goods in a ships hold and covered with a little earth.

—Giovanni Boccaccio
-political and social structure of Western Europe changed with the end of the united Roman Empire

-the fall of Rome led to the disappearance of a strong, centralized govt

-impact of missing a strong govt...

-not govt=no
Social Shift
-the inability to have a centralized govt led to a change in society as a whole

-no military to maintain order, no taxes to support infrastructure, no education to manage society, etc...

-the unified people of the Roman Empire broke apart into their own cultural groups which all fought with each other

-society became more rural as the large Roman cities declined and fell into decay---Rome went from a city of 300,000 in the 4th century to less than 25,000 by the late 500s

-the Catholic Church became more powerful than ever as it was the only remaining large central authority in Western Europe

Start of a Dynasty---Clovis the First
-Clovis was a member of a group of people called the Franks

-the Frankish people were divided into 6 separate small kingdoms in modern-day France

-Clovis became king of the Salien Franks in 481...he was only 15 years old

-embarked on a successful 5 year campaign that united all the Frankish people under his rule

-in 496 he converted to Christianity...most of the Frankish people followed

-set him apart from the other European kings, and won the Frankish Kingdom support from the powerful and wealthy Catholic Church

-died in 511, but had formed the first large and united kingdom since the fall of Rome
-the prophet Muhammad was born in the city of Mecca and lived between 570-632

-founded the religion of Islam and unified Arabia into a single religious state

-various Islamic groups (Moors, Rashidun, Umayyads) embarked on a massive military campaign between 629-827
-in 629 the first Arabs clashed with the Byzantine Empire

-fighting would last between the Arabs and Byzantines until 1050

-Byzantine Empire would survive but would lose much of its territory

-the Byzantine Empire would be destroyed later in 1453 by the Ottoman Muslims during the 2nd Islamic Invasion
Byzantine-Arab Wars
652---North Africa
718---Iberian Peninsula
827---Sicily+southern Italy
-by the early 700's Europe was threatened by Islamic invaders from both the east and west

-in 718 Constantinople nearly fell after a 7 year seige, but was saved by Bulgarian reinforcements

-this (temporarily) protected Europe from Islamic invasion from the east

-west was still threatened

-born as a bastard child in 688, great-great nephew to Clovis

-rose to power and became Mayor of the Palace...power behind the throne

-Martel further extended the territory of the Franks in a series of military campaigns from 718-723

-in 730, Muslims from Spain began encroaching on the southern border of the Frankish Kingdom

-Martel assembled a Frankish army of 30,000 veteran troops

-Martel led an army of 25,000 Frankish troops to meet the 35,000 Muslim forces near the city of Tours

-farthest Muslims had invaded into Europe

-the Muslim army arrived outside Tours and were surprised to see a large, organized army waiting for them

-the Muslim strength was their cavalry, but the Franks deployed their forces in hills and forests

-the Muslims attempted a several massive heavy cavalry charges, but the disciplined professional soldiers of the Franks withstood the charges

-the Muslim cavalry attempted to turn and flee, and the Franks ran them down and drove the Islamic forces from the field

-12,000 Muslims were killed along with 3000 Franks

1. Muslim forces driven from France

2. Martel becomes strongest ruler in Europe

3. Europe kept safe from further Muslim invasion for decades

4. Helped unite the people of Europe

5. Preserved Christianity as the religion of Europe

- the battle was the decisive turning point in the struggle against Islam

-instituted economic and religious reforms throughout his empire

-also opened an early public school system for children of the nobility

-Charlemagne died in 814, after nearly 45 years as king/emperor

-Charlemagne's Empire encompassed nearly all of continental western Europe at the time of his death

-it was the first large nation in Europe since the Roman Empire

-the influence and power of the Church would only increase due to its alliance with Charlemagne's Empire
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