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# Hardy-Weinberg Mathematical Model- AP Bio 2013

Mathematical modeling allele frequency using spreadsheets. Project for AP Biology, March 2013
by

## Holley Moran

on 7 March 2013

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#### Transcript of Hardy-Weinberg Mathematical Model- AP Bio 2013

Holley Moran
March 2013
AP Bio Hardy-Weinberg Mathematical Model Background Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium: Objective To map out the frequencies of dominant and recessive alleles in a population of fruit flies when a lethal-recessive trait, such as curly wings (Cy) are present in an initial generation using spreadsheets. Hypothesis If a lethal-recessive allele is present in an initial generation in a population, then when mapped out in a spread sheet model, the dominant wild type allele will out-number the recessive trait because the homozygous recessive carriers have died and are not able to reproduce and won't be able to donate their alleles to a succeeding generation at the rate the surviving dominant homozygous will. Mathematical Model How it works Data p+q=1
p2 + 2pq + q2 =1 Used to map the inheritance patterns of alleles in a population. This can be used to explore how allele frequencies change in populations and how those changes will affect the population. A mathematical model using a spreadsheet can simulate biological systems and applications of evolution including allele frequencies, selection, mutation, and migration. p2= AA
q2= aa
2pq=Aa p=frequency of dominant allele
q=frequency of recessive alle Source: Mathematical Modeling: Hardy-Weinberg
class handout page 1 Initial Generation Initial frequencies of dominant and recessive alleles for first generation The gametes A and B are randomly generated using =RAND() according to the frequencies of the p and q values 1st generation offspring zygotes results of two randomly selected gametes Result totals of allele gamete combinations in percentages Generation 2 Allele frequencies based off of A and B percentages established from the offspring of the previous generation Generation 3 Generation 4 Generation 5 Graph showing allele frequency throughout the generations See it work! Random Samples Trials All 10 sample graphs averaged together Conclusions Since the homozygous BB genotype died off and weren't able to reproduce, the population throughout the generations had a higher p-value and frequency of A gametes and dominant alleles. This model did not show an ideal Hardy-Weinberg population because the population is far too small. Since there was a small generation and the gametes were randomly selected, the individual sample results were spontaneous and they had to be averaged together to reflect accurate results.
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