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Spanish-American War to WWI
Transcript of Spanish-American War to WWI
I. Causes of the Spanish-American War
A. Cuban revolts against Spanish rule
B. The reconcentrado
1. This was a concentration camp system
2. As a result approx. 225,000 Cubans died
C. The USS Maine-February 15, 1898
1. 250 Americans died in the explosion in Havana Harbor.
2. Later investigations showed this to be an accident
II. The War
A. War is declared April 25, 1898.
1. The Teller Amendment
a. This stated the US would leave Cuba once independence was assured
B. The Philippines
1. Teddy Roosevelt
a. Roosevelt as Assistant Secretary of the Navy went beyond his orders and sent the US Navy to take the Philippines.
III. Results of the War
A. Economically -Industrial production and farm output increased to support the war.
B. Guam and Puerto Rico became US territories.
C. Teddy Roosevelt became a National Hero.
D. The US has a position of world power since it has possession of territories around the world.
D. "I would give anything if President McKinley would order the fleet to Havana tomorrow"- TR
1. The quote above shows that most people were certain the Spanish sank the Maine
2. It contributed to McKinley's decision to go to war with Spain
E. Yellow Journalism
1. William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer
2. Both men ran articles about the virtues of Cubans and the brutality of Spain
A. Alfred Thayer Mahan
1. US needs to take a position of power
2. The way to do this is, like Britain, have a large and strong navy.
3. Starting 1883 the US began to update their Navy from wood to steel.
4. By 1898 the US had sufficient Naval Power for its expanded role in world affairs.
C. The Rough Riders
1. Led by Theodore Roosevelt
2. They saw the heaviest fighting at San Juan Hill
3. They captured Santiago which basically ended the war in July 1898
D. Cuba is liberated from Spanish control
I. Causes of WWI
1. The Allied Powers at the start of the war are:
2. The Central Powers at the start of the war are:
The Ottoman Empire
E. The Platt Amendment
1. Was passed as part of the new Cuban Constitution
2. It gave the US a permanent base at Guantanamo Bay
1. This is the feeling that your culture is superior to all other cultures
C. The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
1. This was the spark that started WWI
2. With Blank Check support from Germany Austria-Hungary prepared for war
1. Russia supported Serbia and began to mobilize its troops.
2. The Czar did not believe his cousin the Kaiser would attack.
1. On August 1, 1914 Germany declared war on Russia
2. Two days later they attacked France going through neutral Belgium
III. US Involvement in WWI
A. The US had an isolationist policy since George Washington had warned about European Alliances
B. Woodrow Wilson did not want the US involved
C. However 2 issues get the US involved
1. The Zimmerman Telegram
a. This was a letter written to Mexico, from Germany, saying that if they attacked the US they would regain their former territories
2. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
a. This led to the sinking of the Lusitania with many US citizens aboard
V. The Fighting
A. Trench Warfare- led to very heavy casualties and a halting of enemy penetration into territories. The Machine gun makes this war very bloody.
B. Chemical Warfare- This was the first war to use chemical weapons to kill the enemy. Many troops died from mustard gas and other forms of chemical gas.
C. Air Warfare- This is the 1st war to use planes extensively. The main use was a tool for spying on enemy troop movements.
VI. The Armistice
A. The addition of US power and overthrow of the Kaiser led to the end of fighting
B. Germany was never defeated. They agreed to stop fighting.
IV. Key figures
A. Alvin York
1. Most decorated soldier in the war. Won the Medal of Honor. He also fought in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive
B. J.J. (Blackjack) Pershing
1. He was the leader of US forces in WWI , graduated from West Point, fought in the Spanish-American War, and Pursued Pancho Villa in Mexico, but never caught him.
D. Submarine Warfare- The Germans failed to gain superiority at sea and began to rely on Unrestricted Submarine Warfare.
E. The Sussex Pledge states that Germany will not target merchant ships, unless they were carrying weapons. They can not keep this pledge.
VII. The Treaty of Versailles
A. Met in June 1919
B. Germany was blamed for ALL of WWI and forced to pay war reparation. ($30 Billion)
C. German territory was taken. The Map of Europe would need to be extensively redrawn.
VII. Results of the War
A. The US was only in the war from 1917-1918, yet it is looked at around the world as a major world power.
B. Once again it increased industrial and farming output to support the war
D. France and Britain gained Germany's over seas territories
E. The League of Nations is created.
F. The Battle of the Argonne Forest
1. The last Allied offensive that forced the Germans to agree to the armistice
C. Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points
1. Open covenants (no secret diplomacy)
2. Freedom of the seas
3. The removal of economic barriers
4. The reduction of national armaments “to the lowest point consistent with safety”
5. The impartial adjustment of colonial claims
6. The evacuation of Russia by foreign armies
7. Belgian independence
8. The Alsace-Lorraine area restored to France
9. Adjustment of the Italian frontier
10. Autonomy for the peoples of Austria-Hungary
11. The restoration of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro
12. Autonomy for Turkey
13. An independent Poland
14. The creation of a League of Nations
D. The US did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles as many people were afraid of entanglement in European Alliances.
On October 18, 1898, American troops fighting in the Spanish-American War raised the United States flag in Puerto Rico formalizing U.S. control of the former Spanish colony.
Shorts from Edison Studio
“Colored Troops” disembarking
Stephen Crane as journalist in Spanish-American War,
Walt Whitman’s Expansionist predictions
II. Pros of Imperialism
A. Would Expand US Territory
1. Expansion would lead to more natural resources
2. This would lead to greater US world power
B. It would boost the economy
1. Lend economic stability to areas that had not had it
C. Greater US Defensive Position
1. Expanded military bases around the world
Ex. Guantanamo Bay, Cuba
III. Cons of Imperialism
A. Loss of Culture
1. Natives of territories feared loss of cultural identity.
2. Assimilation = end of culture
B. No Need
1.The US is varied enough territorially to have enough natural resources
2. Scattered territories lead to more expenses to maintain
C. Goes Against American Values
1. Ruling over people takes away their freedoms
2. Leads to racial discrimination-"white man's burden"
Czar Nicholas II and Kaiser Wilhelm II