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Health, Safety, and Netiquette

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Sheighlin MacAskill

on 14 March 2014

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Transcript of Health, Safety, and Netiquette

Meghan Alton, Aly Buhr,
Courtney Crosson, Sheighlin MacAskill, Ellen Maring,
& Lauren Traube

Texting and Driving
Social Media and Self Esteem
Cyberbullying & Special Needs
Health, Safety, and Netiquette
An aggressive, intentional act carried out by a group or individual, using electronic forms of contact, repeatedly and over time against a victim
- Didden et al. (2009)
What is Cyberbullying?
About 20-40% of all youths have experienced cyberbullying at least once in their lives and only 40-50% of those who are victimized know the identity of their bully
- Tokunaga (2010)
Cyberbullying vs. Traditional Bullying
Research Questions
Are children who are involved in one type of bullying involved in both? Is one type worse than the other for those involved?
Kowalski & Limber (2012)
1. There was a clear overlap in involvement with traditional and cyberbullying among the participants

2. Those individuals who were placed in the
bully-victim category (particularly for cyber) had more negative outcomes from the bullying, including psychological health, physical health, and academic performance
Cyberbullying vs. Traditional Bullying
Research Question
Is there a unique association between involvement in cyberbullying [as a victim OR bully] and symptoms of depression and suicidal ideation that is unrelated to involvement in traditional bullying?
Bonanno & Hymel (2013)
1. Involvement in cyberbullying, as either a victim or bully, uniquely contributed to the prediction of both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation, over and above the contribution of involvement in traditional forms

2. Even though cyberbullying was reported less frequently than traditional, the researchers suggest that low prevalence should not be equated with low risk for internalizing difficulties
Cyber Bullies and Victims
Research Questions
With so many youth accessing the Internet and other communication technologies on a daily basis, how severe is the risk of getting involved in cyberbullying?
Mishna, Khoury-Kassabri, Gadalla & Dacik (2012)
1. Over 30% of the students in this study were involved in cyberbullyng, as victims or perpetrators, and 25% of them reported having been involved as both bully and victim

2. 8% reported cyberbullying others during the previous three months
Cyber Victimization and Aggression
Research Questions
Is there a relationship between those who experience cyber victimization and instances of cyber aggression six months later?
Wright & Li (2013)
1. Sources of strain [eg. peer rejection, cyber victimization] may result in negative emotions, leading some adolescents to utilize poor coping strategies, such as aggressive behaviors in the cyber world

2. Researchers suggest that in order to cope with their feelings of anger and frustration from being cyberbullied, they themselves engage in cyber aggression towards others.
Texting and Literacy
Today's Meet
Now its YOUR turn! Make a PSA on your assigned topic using:

Tk Hm Msgs
Today's Meet
What is your definition of sexting?
Sexually suggestive photos, nude photos, sexually suggestive texts, or a text message propositioning sexual activity
20% of teens and 33% of young adults sent or posted nude or semi-nude photos of themselves (Delevi & Weisskirch, 2013)
38% of teens and 58% of young adults sent or posted sexually suggestive messages (Delevi & Weisskirch, 2013)
Weisskirch and Delevi (2011)
Measured attachment styles and frequency of sexting among 18-30 year olds

People with anxious attachments were more likely to sext

Those with anxious attachments use sexting as a way to maintain their relationships
Drouin and Landgraff (2012)
Used the same methods as the previous study but had a larger sample size containing more males

Men tend to be more avoidant and have positive views of casual sex

Those with avoidant attachments use sexting as a way to engage in sexual acts without investing physical or emotional intimacy
Relationship Status
Delevi and Weisskirch (2013)
Asked college students to rate their frequency of sexting and how close they would need to be to someone to engage in sexting

Men were more likely to engage in low-risk sexting

Women required a higher degree of commitment to engage in sexting
Relationship Status
Parker, Blackburn, Perry and Hawks (2013)
Measured relationship satisfaction, frequency of sexting, and sex motives

If partners feel safe and accepted in their relationship they are more likely to sext
Walrave, Heirman, and Hallam (2013)
Asked teens if they had engaged in sexting in the last two months, relationship status, and their behavioral beliefs toward sexting

61% of teens had been pressured to sext

The importance of perceived social pressure outweighs teens attitudes toward sexting

Englander (2012)
Asked college freshmen about their activities all four years of high school

Girls were more likely to admit to sexting

Girls reported they had been pressured, blackmailed or coerced into sexting

Pressure usually came from someone they were dating
Today's Meet
Have you ever texted while driving? Do you think this behavior is dangerous?
Psychosocial Influences
Nemme & White (2010)
Feldman, Greeson, Renna, & Robbins-Monteith (2011)
Psychosocial Influences
How often are college students texting while driving? What are their perceptions of the behavior?
1. Most participants reported that texting while driving is dangerous, distracting, and should be illegal
2. Most admitted to texting while driving on at least a few occasions
3. Permissive attitudes towards texting while driving were related to increased recklessness
Harrison (2011)
Research Questions
Research Questions
Research Questions
Research Questions
Are individual differences in mindfulness associated with texting-while-driving? Is this relationship mediated by motives to text?
1. Individuals lower in mindfulness tended to report more frequent texting while driving
2. The relationship was mediated by individual differences in emotion-regulation motives
Can an extended theory of planned behavior be used to predict young drivers' intentions to send and read text messages while driving?
1. Attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control were able to predict intentions to send texts while driving
2. Moral norm and group norm significantly predicted the behavior of texting while driving
3. Of the demographic factors, only past behavior, and not gender, predicted intentions to both send and read texts while driving
Gauld, Lewis, & White (2013)
What are the predictive factors associated with the intention to engage in concealed texting while driving?
1. Findings support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a predictor of concealed texting while driving
2. Moral norm and mobile phone involvement were significant predictors; anticipated regret was not

Mobile phones, first introduced in the 1980’s, have changed how we communicate
- Coe, & Oakhill, 2011

In the 1900s, Short Message System SMS was developed in Europe
- Coe, & Oakhill, 2011

Short cuts in SMS include:
Shortened words: Tuesday to Tues
Letters removed: going to goin
Acronyms: Laugh out Loud to LOL
Apostrophes left out: Don’t to dont
- Rosen, Chang, Erwin , Carrier, & Cheever, 2010

The relationship between Textisms and literacy development
Textims and Reading
Study to examine if children’s knowledge of text abbreviations related to their school literacy attainment.

Girls have a higher ratio of textisms to total words than boys
Children’s use of textisms was positively related with their literacy ability
May be related to their reading development
Textims and Reading
An intervention study that considered the impact of text messaging on the literacy skills of children ages nine to ten years old.

Children given the mobile phone for the weekend didn not perform differently than the children not given a phone
Textisms seen to contribute to literacy development
The nature of textism uses phonological and alphabetic awareness which is also used in successful reading development.
Textisms may also be beneficial because they are an exposure to print outside of school

Textims and Reading

On average the children spent longer texting than speaking on their mobile phones.
A difference was found between good and poor readers and the number of textisms used in their written text messages.
The good readers were shown using significantly more textisms.
Study did not look at relationship between the frequency of text messaging and literacy skills
Textism and Spelling
A longitudinal study that compared children’s text messaging and their literacy development.

51% of the children in the study reported using their phones mainly for texting.

Textism usage increases around 6th grade

Children’s textism use in their spontaneous text messaging was positively related to reading and spelling skills.

It was found that instead of being problematic text message abbreviations may enhance spelling skills
Texting and Writing
Examined whether the reported daily use of textisms in electronic communication is related to the quality of either informal or formal writing.

Females used significantly more textisms and sent more text messages than males
Those with a college degree that reported having more simultaneous IM’s had worse formal writing.
The reported use of the lowercase “i” was related to worse formal writing for the participants with some college education.
The absence of apostrophes was related to better informal writing for those with no college education.
The use of daily textisms was related to better informal writing.
The study found a negative relationship between textisms and literacy

Plester, Wood and Joshi (2009)
Wood, Jackson, Hart, Plester & Wilde, (2011)
Coe and Oakhill (2011)
Wood, Meachem, Bowyer, Jackson, Bowels, Plester (2011)
Rosen et al. (2010)
What is YOUR definition of cyberbullying?

Have you ever been involved in cyberbullying?
Today's Meet
Today's Meet
What did you do over the weekend?
(use textisms)
Today's Meet

Study looked to find if children with ADHD and Asperger’s experience higher levels of traditional bullying as well as cyber bullying.

Children with ADHD and Asperger’s Syndrome do experience higher levels of traditional bullying relative to their peers, however, there are very clear differences between traditional and cyber bullying.

Because children with ADHD and Asperger’s may have some social skill deficits, they may actually prefer to communicate online and through social media, however, because of these deficits these social problems will probably lead to problems in the virtual world as well.

Special Education Settings
Didden et al. (2009)

Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Bauman and Pero (2011)
ADHD and Asperger’s Syndrome
Kowalski and Fedina (2011)
Textisms contribute to literacy development (reading and writing) due to the exposure of print outside of the classroom and use of phonological and alphabetic awareness
Know who you're talking to and be more aware of what you're saying to others online and how you say it; you never know how your words can be effecting someone!
This study looked to determine the prevalence and features of cyberbullying and students with developmental disabilities in special education.
Bullying via the internet and cellphone was relatively prevalent and cyberbullying was related to IQ, presence of ADHD, self-esteem, depressive feelings and frequency of computer use.
This study looked to explore whether there is a correlation between traditional bullying and cyberbullying and if the relationship was the same for deaf and hard of hearing populations.

No significant results were found regarding rate and forms of victimization in this group

Strong correlation between cyber victimization and cyberbullying

Moral disengagement was positively correlated with conventional bullying
Cyberbullying is prevalent among disabled and non-disabled children and adolescents. Parents and teachers need to help educate disabled children about cyberbullying.
Do you think children and adolescents with disabilities experience cyberbullying?

Do you think that they are bullied more or less than their non-disabled peers?

Do you think children with disabilities can be cyber bullies?

Most people know the dangers of texting while driving, but still do it. This may be because of norms, habitual texting, or attitudes. Policy makers must go beyond making laws and help change intentions and attitudes towards mobile phone use

Social Networking and a Need for Popularity
Does a Need for Popularity (NfP) predict Social Networking Site (SNS) behaviors more than Big 5 Personality Traits?
NfP was a stronger predictor of SNS use than other personality traits
Extroversion and the need for popularity also correlated to the number of friends participants had and self-centered behaviors
Today's Meet
Which aspects of your social networking sites most accurately describe you?
Profile picture
Photos (posted by you, or others?)
About me section
Status updates
Narcissism as a Predictor of Motivations Behind Facebook Profile Picture Selection

Would more narcissistic individuals select profile pictures that emphasized attractiveness, personality, and social ties?

Narcissistic individuals tended to see themselves as special and unique and were more motivated to post pictures of personality, lifestyle, and activities
Narcissists were less likely to post pictures with others/acknowledge another person's importance
Self-Presentation 2.0: Narcissism and Self-Esteem on Facebook
Mehdizadeh (2010)
How do narcissists and individuals with low self-esteem differ in social media use?
Which group of users would have higher rates of social networking use, and who would post more self-promoting content
Both narcissists and individuals with low self-esteem are likely to engage in extensive social media use and self promotion on FB
Men were more likely to display self-promotion in the About Me or Notes sections, while women were more likely to display self promotion in the main photos section
Mirror Mirror on my Facebook Wall: Effects of Exposure to Facebook on Self-Esteem
Gonzalez & Hancock (2011)
Will exposure to Facebook have a more positive or negative effect on individuals self esteem compared to exposure to a traditional self-awareness stimuli, such as a mirror
Will viewing other peoples profiles along with your own effect self-esteem?
Will changing your profile affect self-esteem?
Participants who browsed their Facebook profile prior to taking a self-esteem survey scored highest on the self-esteem scale, whereas individuals who were exposed to the mirror condition scored the lowest on the self-esteem scale
Utz, Tanis, & Vermeulen (2012)
Kapidzic (2013)
People may sext if they have anxious or avoidant attachments, to maintain their relationship, if they feel comfortable in their relationship, or if they are pressured by a date.
Social networking sites offer users a platform to increase self esteem
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