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Chapter 4: LOCAL, FOLK, POPULAR CULTURE, AND CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
Transcript of Chapter 4: LOCAL, FOLK, POPULAR CULTURE, AND CULTURAL LANDSCAPE
Describe the difference between local and popular cultures?
How are Local/Folk Cultures Sustained?
How can Local and Popular Cultures be seen in the Cultural Landscape?
Folk Culture = AKA Local Culture (slow to change)
homogenous population, is
with cohesive cultural traits i.e. Hutterites, Amish...
Tradition controls lifesyle
Resistant to change
Claim Uniqueness and protect it
Spreads by RELOCATION Diffusion
Local culture (between folk and pop)
People who see themselves as a
"Folk" is too limiting, but similar to Folk.
Large, heterogeneous groups,
URBAN, INFLUENCED BY MEDIA
embrace cultural traits such as music, dance, clothing, and food preference that
change quickly as well as frequently,
and are visual on the cultural landscape
typically starts by spreading heirachially
less connectivity to technology...
more of local culture you create
Belief systems, norms, and values practiced by a people.
Nonmaterial culture: Beliefs, practices, aesthetics, values
Material culture: Constructed items, clothing, houses, CARS, Sports, PHONES
Material -> Establishment of neighborhoods, construction of places of worship and community centers
Beijing, China 2004
Madonna wearing a red string Kabbalah bracelet.
Jewish culture embraced in popular culture....
Or.... food like tacos, other traditions, native american dream catchers, etc?
Uggs.... eskimos to now part of pop fashion?
How do cultural traits from local cultures become part of popular culture?
Hearth: the point of origin of a cultural trait.
Hierarchical diffusion (1st)
How do cultural traits diffuse?
2.1 Exit Slip
Employing the concept of hierarchical diffusion, describe how you became a “knower” of your favorite kind of music or video game— where is its hearth, and how did it reach you?
Employing the concept of hierarchical diffusion, describe how you became a “knower” of your favorite fashion trend— where is its hearth, and how did it reach you?
Assimilation policies -i.e. US towards Native Americans
people of indigenous cultures to adopt dominant cultures
Native Americans, Aboriginees in Australia, Inuits in Canada
Practices that people use to sustain culture
Maintained despite popular culture
Folk cultures try to find ways to prevent assimilation of Pop Culture
Local Cultures often have two goals:
1. keeping other cultures out. i.e. Japan....
(i.e. create a boundary around itself, Isolationism)
2. keeping their own culture in.
over their own culture
Cultures try to keep their knowledge, medicine, music to themselves to keep uniqueness.
= process by which other cultures adopt customs or knowledge to use for own benefit. (Dream Catchers, Uggs, Crocs, etc)
Shanghai 1990 vs. 2012
Urban and Rural Local Cultures
Rural Folk/Local Cultures
Isolation- predominately found in
Common economic activity among members
- separation from Roman church
Amish- all over-->Restrict most Technology
-100 people villages
-accept technology- INTERNET dating!
-mt lake, live in rural families!
-agriculture practiced, computerized farming
-less restrictions than amish, patriarchal=MEN...
Little Sweden, USA (Lindsborg, KS)
seeking out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world.
Branson Missouri- Showtime!
Wall Drug -South Dakota (bring back wild west)
New Prague- Czech heritage
economic gains are often motivations....
questions of authenticity occurring...
Urban Local Cultures
created by local cultures settling in area within cities
Creates a space to practice customs
Can cluster businesses, houses of worship, schools to support local culture
Migration into ethnic neighborhoods can quickly change an ethnic neighborhood - Boston Marathon you see vast cultural differences
i.e. Grand Torino, apartments, Mankato Apts?
Process of making something that was not previously bought and sold a commodity in the marketplace
Material culture objects for sale to outsiders
Dream catchers, autographs, famous artifacts
Question of authenticity of places
Creation of identity from cultural traits
Irish Pub Company Pubs
Irish Pub Company and Guinness Brewing Company created 5 models of pubs and export them around the world.
-Commodified yet keeps some authenticity
4.2 Exit Slip
What is the last place you went to or the last product you purchased that claimed to be “authentic?” What are the challenges of defending the authenticity of this place or product while refuting the authenticity of other similar places or products?
How Is Popular Culture Diffused?
Distance-decay: More interaction between closer places than between more distant places
: Interaction dependent on connectedness among places -INTERNET has skewed connectedness
-World ever more connected due to technology. Distance no longer important.
Hearths of Popular Culture Traits
Typically begin with a hierarchical idea/good and then spread contagiously
Pop Culture created or manufactured everywhere
Companies (for example, MTV, FACEBOOK, Phone Apps)
Individuals (for example, Dave Matthews, Swift, Newton)
Stemming the Tide of Popular Culture
Rapid diffusion of popular culture from major CITY hearths
Government subsidies: Media closed from entering(NK)
Dominant cultures of wealthy countries create feeling of Fundamentalism (Westernization)
Minorities in wealthy countries find ways for Cultural preservation (Prevent assimilation, create neolocalism)
Hierarchial diffusion is usual starting point of ALL pop culture
Companies can create/manufacture popular culture. (ie. MTV, Video Games)
Individuals can create/manufacture popular culture. (ie. Tony Hawk, L Gaga)
How are hearths of
popular culture traits established?
Satellite Television, Baja California
Often Destroys Folk Culture – or preserves traditions as museum pieces or tourism gimmicks.
No longer authentic
Change in Traditional Roles and Values; Polynesian weight problems
Problems with the Globalization of Culture
Disconnect with landscape: indoor swimming pools? desert surfing?
Is anything Authentic anymore?
Surfing at Disney’s Orlando Typhoon Lagoon
Are places still tied to local landscapes?
The Internet is diffusing today, but access varies widely.
The areas in white demonstrate connectedness causing time-space compression
Check this out! Read and discuss this Interesting Read:
Fig. 4-3: This mental map places major hip hop performers near other similar performers and in the portion of the country where they performed.
A Mental Map of Hip Hop:
Why are popular culture traits usually diffused hierarchically?
How is fashion in popular culture an example of hierarchical diffusion?
Think about your local community (your college campus, your neighborhood, your town). Determine how your local community takes one aspect of popular culture and makes it your own.
(this is reterritorializaiton in Mankato!)
4.3 Exit Slip
Convergence of Cultural Landscapes
Cultural landscape - Visible human imprint on the land
Placelessness: Similarity of places of popular cultures everywhere
Complex network of roads and highways
Commercial Structures tend towards ‘boxes’
Planned and Gated Communities more and more common
The hearth of Phish concerts is in the northeastern United States, near where the band began in Vermont.
COLLEGE TOWNS SPREAD POP CULTURE, ESPECIALLY MUSIC!
Convergence of Cultural Landscapes:
The widespread distribution
of businesses and products
creates distinctive landscape
stamps around the world.
Borrowing of idealized landscape images blurs place distinctiveness Which is Venice? Authentic?
Venetian in China, Vegas USA, Venice Italy.
Cultural Landscapes of Local Cultures
Persistence of local cultural landscapes
Presence along “back roads” of wealthy countries-Mormons in Utah
small rural villages with unique houses and buildings
4.4 Exit Slip
Focus on the cultural landscape of your community. Think about the concept of placelessness. Determine whether your community is a “placeless place” or if the cultural landscape of your community reflects the unique identity of the place.
Global Local Continuum
scale and authenticity is no longer important
process of places/activities spreading across world
Glocalization- altering local processes to further spread
McDonalds around world, Apps, most Pop Culture in the Arab World
Culturally appropriating a concept allowing spread
E.Q. Describe the difference between local and popular cultures?
Personal Local Culture Quick Write
Write a two paragraph summary about a local culture you are part of. (
Think large scale
Not Mankato, American, Minnesotan
A. Describe its customs, non/material culture, how it diffuses, hearth,
B How does it prevent assimilation? Does cultural appropriation take place or commidification?
C. What impacts does it have on the cultural landscape?
How would a person describe popular culture? How Is Popular Culture Diffused? Free write....
*How does it start
*Who is involved, how many affected
*How does it spread
*What really is it
Black Friday/Cyber Monday activity
In groups of 3: (Help each-other brainstorm)
-Each person creates one/two examples of pop-culture
-This could be an idea, consumer good, behavior, service, etc....
Include it's hearth AND how it spread!
-Share with small group then large group
Folk or Pop culture clip?
-producing an aspect of pop culture and making it their own
Components of Culture
-Film,TV -Social Interaction
-Folklore (stories) -Food
-land Use (roundabouts)
Gender Roles: (Patriarchial Society)
Men: run colony, manual labor, teachers, church officials basically all leadership roles
Women: cook, clean, basic stereotypical women duties. Have 5-6 children TFR 4+
Children: Schooled by colony, learn alongside gendered adults. Leave society and CHOOSE to come back
Used Only for online dating, agriculture practices, or by men to advance community
TABOOS: Pop Culture that will cause assimilation... NO video games, cell phones, tv, internet
UFC reterritorialized from WWE, high school & Sumo Wrestiling to make new entertainment
Amish in the United States
Beijing Today same block...
Milan, Tokyo, Paris,London, New York