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Ancient Civilizations timeline

Ancient civilizations timeline By: Jordan Sunder & Caelan Beattie

Jordan Sunder

on 7 January 2015

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Transcript of Ancient Civilizations timeline

Ancient Civilization
Timeline By : Caelan And Jordan Bronze Age Stone age Iron Age 1830-612 BC Assyrian Civilization Religion, Culture, and Languages

-Assyrians practiced Ashurism and Christianity

-Ashurism was the first religion that they practiced which was named after their god Ashur

-Assyrians spoke Akkadian and Neosyric Minoan
-Rise of the Minion Civilization
-The very first Minoan villages were established in 2600 B.C
-The first colonies were made in Thera, Rodos, Melos, and Kithira
-The Minoans colonized ancient Crete Tools
-Minoans used the axe for both farming and fighting
-Minoans used the olive press to create wine
-Minoans used the hammer
-Minoans used the mallet Technology
-Did not have access to iron
-Used bronze and stone for making tools and weapons
-Streets in cities were drained by gutters
-Water and sewage facilities were rare but available to the upper class
-Most houses and structure were made from mud brick and stone Inventions
-Invented sailing ships
-Invented ship sails
-Invented the first portable chair Religion and Culture
-Little is known of Minoan religion
-Some Greek gods have thought to have been taken from Minoan religion
-These gods include Athena and Aphrodite
-The Minoan gods controlled the world they lived in
-Rituals and sacrifices were common, but mainly animals were sacrificed. A human sacrifice would have been rare Tools, Technologies, and Inventions

-Assyrians had the largest library in Ancient times with over 30,000 tablets

-They had the largest standing army with iron swords,lances,metal armor,and battering rams

-The first form of a law was created by Hammurabi (Hammurabi's Code)

-First form of writing was created in Assyria

-Assyrians were the first people to believe in Jesus

-They created the first university

-They also created a type of calender and wheels

-Assyrians built roads and started a postal service to make communication easier Culture
-Many Minoans would pay for their houses and other goods by joining the Egyptian Army
-All over Crete the Minoans built palaces surrounded by courtyards to worship their gods
-Minoans spoke two languages called linear A and linear B, linear A remains undeciphered as of now
-The Minoans kept written records that resembled Egyptian hieroglyphics
There was no gender specific roles or rules in Ancient Crete, everyone was treated as an equal
-Culture was a very important part of the Minoan Civilization Government
-The Minoans were ruled under a system of monarchy
-The only ruler ever known was king Minos
-The king was accompanied by a priest hood, consisting mainly of women
-The king was also helped by a large network of bureaucrats and scribes
-The king controlled both army and the government Fall of the Minoans
-The Minoan civilization fell in 1100 B.C
-An earthquake hit Crete destroying most buildings
-The volcano called Thera violently exploded causing many to die from both the volcanic eruption and debris and ash
-In the end the Minoan civilization fell to attacks from the Greeks as well as the Mycenaean and corrupt trading systems including not having access to necessary resources The Minoans Government

-Assyrians had a militaristic and Monarchy type of government

-Everyone went by Hammurabi's Code

-Assyrians were very brutal to their enemies and when they caught their enemies they tortured them 2600 B.C-1100 B.C 612-539 BC Babylonian Civilization Religion and Languages

-Babylonians were Chaldean

-Babylonians spoke Akkadian like the Assyrians Tools
-Greeks used the abacus
-Greeks used the spindle
-Greeks used the chariot
-Greeks used the wax scratchier
-Greeks used the oil lamp
-Greeks used the ripper
-Greeks used the furnace
-Greeks used the potters wheel Technology
-Had access to resources such a s wood, stone, and bronze
-Had sophisticated knowledge of pumps and steam engines
-Made amazing leaps in medical science and created surgical tools
-Had access to the wheel
-The greeks believed there was a system of many gods that controlled their world and the things around them
-There were many gods but most were considered minor gods, while a select twelve were considered to be the major gods
-These gods included:
-Zeus: The king of the gods and the god of the sky and the heavens
-Hera: The queen of the gods and the goddess of marriage
-Poseidon: The god of the sea
-Hades: The god of the underworld
-Hestia: The goddess of the hearth
-Ares: The god of war
-Athena: The goddess of wisdom and war
-Apollo: The god of the son
-Aphrodite: The goddess of love
-Hermes: The god of theft and commerce
-Artemis: The goddess of the moon
-Hephaestus: The god of fire and the forge Government
-Ancient Greece was most famous for creating the first democracy in ancient Athens
-The democracy they used selected five hundred random Athenians who had to serve in the Athenian government for one year
-These five hundred people had the power to create laws, and if a law was created every male citizen in Athens was required to vote by law to decide whether or not that law would be passed
-Sparta on the other hand was ruled on a different system led by kings
-Sparta had two king that led the government and the army
-These two kings were accompanied by five people called ephors that were elected from aristocratic families, these acted as magistrates
-In addition to the kings and ephors included a council made up of the two kings and 28 elders all over the age of 60 Fall of Greece
- Civilization fell in 146 B.C
-At the end of the Peloponnese war both Sparta and Athens were to weak to defend from the attack of the Macedonians led by -Phillip the second Inventions
-Invented trial by jury
-Invented architectural columns
-Invented the olympics
-Invented the first democracy
-Invented comedy, tragedy, satire, and theater Rise of civilization
-Civilization began in 776 B.C
-Began with the Population of the -Mycenaean in ancient Greece Culture
Only men were aloud to vote
Military presence was strong in Greece
Men wore simple lined tunics
In some city-states, like Athens, it was important for people to grow up with expensive knowledge on how to make peace with your enemies and how to fight them
Drachmas were the most commonly used for of currency in ancient Greece
If you had spare drachmas in ancient Greece most people would go to the theater and see a tragedy or a comedy Tools,Technologies,and Inventions

-The Ancient Babylonians used: copper axes, chisels, awls, knife blades, sickles, chains, clamps, hammers, axe heads, saws, and goads

-Babylonians used kilns for pottery

-They also used potter wheels

-They created wheels for making clay pots and for other things

-Babylonians also created metal working, copper working, glass working, lamp making, textile weaving, flood control, water control, and irrigation

-They also invented a astronomy

-Created zodiac signs, 360 degree circle, and the birth chart Government

-Followed Hammurabi's Code

-There were harsh punishments for committing a crime for example an eye for an eye

-Hammurabi put his laws on tablets everywhere around the town

-There are over 100 different laws created by Hammurabi 3100-539 BC The Greeks Mesopotamian Civilization Religion

-Mesopotamians practiced Ashurism and Christianity Tools, Technologies,and Inventions

-Mesopotamians used copper axes, awls, knives, sickles, chains, clamps, and hammers

-The Mesopotamians invented textile weaving, flood control, water storage, and irrigation

-They also created the zodiac signs and the birth chart

-Mesopotamians used potter wheels and kilns for making clay pots 776 B.C - 146 B.C Rome
Rise of civilization
-Began in 753 B.C
-Started as a small grouping of villages
-Started on the Tiber river in Italy
-Didn't become a notable civilization until 625 B.C Tools
-The Plow
-The sickle
-The rake
-The Turk cutter
-The shovel
-The hoe
-Gladius (Sword)
-Pilium (Medium Spear)
-Hasta (Long spear) Technology
-Had access to stone
-Had access to wood
-Has access to iron
-Had access to the wheel
-Had access to cement Inventions
-Invented roads
-Invented aqueducts
-Invented the Cesarean section
-Invented fast curing cement
-Invented reinforced concrete
-Invented simple hydraulic mining
-Invented grid structures in some cities
-Invented scissors
-Invented the magnifying glass
-Invented the umbrella
-Invented the Candle
-Adopted religion from the Greeks after the -Romans conquered them
-Had a set of many gods that the Romans believed controlled different aspects of their world
-Their were very many gods and goddess but most of them were considered “minor” gods and goddess while a select 12 were thought to be the “major” gods and goddess
-These main twelve gods included:
-Jupiter: King of the gods and ruler of the skies
-Juno: Queen of the gods and goddess of women and childbirth
-Neptune: God of the sea
-Pluto: God of the underworld and death
-Mercury: The gods messenger and god of trade and theft
-Vulcan: God of the forge
-Minerva: Goddess of wisdom and war
-Venus: Goddess of love and beauty
-Mars: God of war
-Apollo: God of the sun
-Diana: Goddess of the moon and the hunt
-Cupid: God of love Culture
-Mainly borrowed from ancient greeks
-Art was hung in places of importance and in select very wealthy people's homes
-Virgil was a famous poet
-Virgil was most notable for writing the poem called the Aeneid
-Romans spoke Latin, which influenced many languages today including our own
-Education was very important to the -Romans, in particular rich Romans who wanted their offspring to become important political or religious leaders
-As a pastime the Romans had different games they played including one that resembled hand ball and a few that used dice. Fall of Rome
-Fell in 476 B.C
-Rome fell for multiple reasons
-The empire was to large to manage
-Having a corrupt army
-Became subject to corrupt leaders
-Romans were introduced to diseases from other countries
-Fell to other invaders after being crippled by the above Government

-All Mesopotamians went by Hammurabi's Code which had equal punishments and harsh consequences like an eye for an eye

-Hammurabi put his tablets around that had his laws printed on them Government
-Went through a few phases of different governments
-Rome began being ruled by kings
-After the death of the last king the roman citizens vowed never to have a king again
-Romans created a new government called a republic
-A republic let male roman citizens elect two leaders called consuls that worked together to pass laws, these consuls served a period of one year before a new consul was elected
-As well as having two consuls the roman republic had two senates containing three hundred people each, one senate was made up of plebeians (The middle class and poor Romans) and the other consisted of patricians (The rich class of Romans).
-When Julius Caesar came to power as a dictator he never gave up power and started the Roman empire
-An empire is a type of government where one ruler controls multiple countries 3500-1100 BC Egyptian Civilizations The Romans Tools, Technologies, and Inventions

-Egyptians ad access to copper and bronze tools

-Egyptians created the first and only pyramids out of limestone

-Egyptians had calenders that had 10 days in a week, 3 weeks in a month, 4 months in a season, 3 seasons in a year, and 5 holy days

-The Egyptians were the first people to invent a 365 day calender

-They invented a sun dial for telling time and a water clock for telling time at night 753 B.C - 476 A.D

Fall of the Mayan Civilization
-The Mayan civilization ended in 1300 A.D
-The Mayan civilization eventually fell to peasant revolt, climate change, over use of land, over population, and may have been exposed to new viruses Culture and Religion

-The Egyptians believed in Gods such as Ra

-Priests and Pharaohs were important to the Egyptians

-Egyptians believed in the Ka, the spiritual after body after death

-They believed that the physical body had to be mummified (preserved) so the Ka could roam

-Important people like Pharaohs were put in tombs in pyramids with all their belongings such as jewelry and pets The Mayans 2500 B.C - 1300 A.D Government

-The Egyptians were controlled by the Pharaoh who controlled everyone and everything

-In Ancient times the citizens had nothing and the Pharaoh had everything

-The Pharaoh had helpers that were part of the royal family

-Pharaohs had organized army, police, and lots of government officials to help him Culture
-The aztecs had two social classes that divided the population
-The Higher class contained people of nobility, this class of people was called the pilli
-The lower or average class of citizens was called macehualli
-Growing up in the Aztec civilization you could go to school regardless of your gender
-Most homes were build from mud bricks
-The currency used was cocoa beans The Aztecs 2000 BC - 1200 AD Indian Civilization Tools, Technology, and Inventions

-Indians had roads and drainage systems

-They used metal tools or tools made out of whatever metal they had at the moment

-Indians also made their own form of writing Culture and Religion

-Indians practiced and still do practice Hinduism,Buddhism,Sikhism, and Jainism Government

-Indians had a caste system

-The caste system was partly based on skin color

-The caste system decided what job a person could have and who they could marry

-Brahmins and priests were at the top and under them were the kshatriyas (warriors)
and below them were the vaisyas (peasants) and below them were the untouchables

-Untouchables were thought to be impure or "dirty", so they got the jobs no one else would do 1206-1368 AD Mongolian Civilization Tools, Technologies, and inventions

-Mongolians used bows, battle axes, daggers, lances, and leather waterproof armour Religion and Culture

-The Mongolians were mostly nomads

-They raised five types of animals: goats, sheep, yaks, cattle, and horses which were the most important

-Men took care of the horses, and made weapons,

-Women milked cows and goats plus did all the other things men did not do

-Mongolians traded with other civilizations for things they did not have

-The Mongolians had two types of music, Khoomi (throat singing) and horse head fiddle

-Mongolians practiced Shamanism, Buddhism, Muslim, and Christianity 1325 A.D - 1521 A.D Government

-Mongolians had laws that were similar to today's like no stealing animals or kidnapping women anyone

-The Mongolian government was an Imperial Monarchy Government
-The Saxons were ruled by a king
-This king was the highest of nobles and the chief magistrate in his state
-Next in rank to the king were the ealdormen that acted as chief chancellors to the king and no laws could be passed without their approval
-In addition to the ealdormen were the kings thanes that posed certain quantities of land and worked in offices to help the king in any way The Anglo Saxons 449 A.D - 1066 A.D Mayan
-Rise of civilization
-Civilization began in Cuello, Belize
-Civilization was established around 2500 B.C but didn't become a proper governed and populated civilization until 300 B.C Tools
-Mayans used the hammer
-Mayans used the plumb-bob
-Mayans used the axe Technology
-The Mayans did not have access to metals like iron or bronze
-The Mayans made tools from stones such as limestone, granite and sand stone
-The Mayans also made tools from chert, flint, obsidian and a form of volcanic glass
-The plumb-bob allowed the Mayans to accurately created a vertical reference point on a building allowing them to make spectacular structures even with their limited materials Religion
-The Mayan civilization focused on the worship of nature gods
-Some of these gods include Itzamná, Kukulcán and Bolon
-The Mayans built elaborate tombs for the people that helped them pass through the afterlife and into the under world
-Heaven was believed to only accept those who had been sacrificed and the women that died in childbirth
-Sacrifices were made to please the gods Culture
-Cocoa beans were used as currency
-An average Mayan meal would've consisted of some corn, beans and squash
-Women in Ancient Maya would have worn decorative dress called a huipil
-Men in ancient Maya commonly wore a breech cloth made from cotton
-Most men were farmers and women helped around the house and tended the fields Government
-The Mayan government was ruled by one king
-Each city-state within Mayan control was ruled by one king who was told to be a direct descendent from the hero twins, two of their gods
-Along with the king was a council of elders and veteran warriors that helped the king make decisions and pass laws Inventions
-Invented the plumb-bob
-Invented hieroglyphics
-Invented fair laws including judges
-Invented pottery
-Invented counting as well as the first simple calendar Aztec
-Rise of civilization
-Civilization founded in 1325 A.D
-Started when the Aztec established their capital in present day Tenochtitlan, Mexico Tools
-The drill
-The axe
-The lever
-The hammer
-The atlatl
-The macuahuitl Technology
-Had no access to bronze or iron
-Used obsidian and chert early in the civilization's start
-Later used copper to make weapons and tools
-Developed very sophisticated calendars and systems to tell time
-Had knowledge to build dikes to prevent the contamination of their fresh water Inventions
-Invented popcorn
-Invented chocolate
-Invented the calendar
-Invented the medical uses of the passion flower
-First civilization to create mandatory education Religion
-Religion in ancient Aztec times was a complex mixture of gods, dates, directions, and colors
- The religion was driven with fear, specifically the fear of nature and the end of the world
-The Aztecs believed that their gods sacrificed themselves to make the sun on their world move, thus letting humans live
-The Aztecs sacrificed themselves because they thought they owed a blood debt to the gods for saving them Government
-The Aztecs were ruled under a king
-This king had complete control over everything under his rule
-The government acted much like an empire because all the city-states they conquered fell under their control
-Was considered more of a system of tributes rather by historians
-Conquered cities were allowed to remain independent as long as they paid respect to the Aztec king and paid them money and sacrifices Fall of the Aztec civilization
-Fell in 1521 when the last Aztec emperor surrendered to the Spanish
-Like most countries the main factor that caused the civilization to fall was exposure to foreign diseases
- The Aztecs also sacrificed thousands of their own people which spiked rebellion on all fronts
-In the end the Aztecs fell to the invasion of the Spanish Anglo Saxon Civilization
-Rise of the Anglo Saxon Civilization
-Civilization established in 449 A.D Tools
-Anglo Saxons used the spindle
-Anglo Saxons used the loom
-Anglo Saxons used knives for fighting and crafting
-Anglo Saxons used axes as well for both fighting and crafting Technology
-Wood was the prime building material for the Anglo Saxons
-They had access to Iron, Stone, Bronze and other metals
-They had advanced knowledge of boats and how to use them to their advantage Inventions
-Invented the Days of the week used today
-The first to celebrate the Easter holidays
-Invented the longbow
The Anglo Saxons followed a religion called heathenism
-This is where the Saxons believed that -Norse gods controlled every aspect of their lives within nature and physical aspects as well.
-The Anglo Saxons followed this religion sometime until Christianity was introduced to them
-Christianity follows the belief that there is one God and his son Jesus who sacrificed himself so that humans could be at peace Culture
-War were a strong cultural point for the Anglo Saxons culture
-The Anglo Saxons warriors were trained at a very early age and followed very strict personnel rules and values
-To an Anglo Saxon warrior this list represents his priorities:
-1. Courage and selflessness
-2. Truth
-3. Honor
-4. Fidelity
-5.Discipline and Duty
-6. Hospitality
-7. Industriousness
-8. Self-reliance
-9. Perseverance
-Anglo Saxons wore very simple cotton clothing, although light colors like blue and purple signified high rank and duller colors represented lower rank Fall of the Anglo Saxons
-The Anglo Saxon civilization fell in 1066 A.D
-The Saxons eventually fell to the Norman invaders who attacked them from the North Bibliography: Caelan "Ancient Greek History for Kids: Government." Ducksters: Fun Kid site with safe search, sports, games, jokes, and homework help.. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.ducksters.com/history/ancient_greek_government.php>.
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