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TImeline:The Interwar Years( Women's Rights and Social Rights)
Transcript of TImeline:The Interwar Years( Women's Rights and Social Rights)
Timeline: The Interwar Years
Pre- World World War I
World War 1 and Post-World War 1
The Interwar Period
The Second World War
1918 - Women over the age of 30 are granted the right to vote in the UK.
1918 - Germany, Canada (though not Quebec), and Austria give women the right to vote.
1920 - Women are able to vote in the USA, though not Native American women.
1928 - Women get voting equality with men in the UK.
The events after WWII also witnessed an attempted reassertion of traditional limits on women's lives, but the new generation of women desired something more.
Changes in fashion such as:
- skirts and trousers for women
- boyish figures
-short, symmetrical haircuts
With the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920, a generational gap began to form that separated the "new" women of the twenties, and the women of the previous generation.
- Women were considered the “heroines of the home front”.
- Their jobs as house wives, became a patriotic duty.
- Relied on volunteers, but in 1941 women were conscripted for the very first time in British history.
- Many women in Britain quit their factory jobs, and the country underwent a labor shortage.
In the Army
The United States
- Women Airforce Service Pilots was created in 1943
In the Army
- Groups such as the Women's auxiliary air force, air transport auxiliary, and the auxiliary territorial service, relied on volunteers.
- In 1941 women were conscripted for the very first time in British history.
- Over 60,000 army nurses, who were all female at the time.
and devices were illegal under federal law. (Comstock Act)
- WASP was eventually shut down in 1944 when there were enough veterans available.
- 19 million women made up the labor force on the home front.
- Transportation, agriculture, office work, and of course, factory work, from which came the famous “Rosie the Riveter” poster.
The campaign for
became active in 1910s.
In 1916, Jeannette Rankin, a Republican from Montana, became the first woman to serve in Congress
Before 20th century
-> ideologically compatible
-> Conservatice Christian groups
(Woman's Christian Temperance Union)
The Girls of Atomic City
- Forced into prostitution by the Japanese military, in order to give Japanese soldiers
“a chance to rest”.
New Zealand and Austrailia
- Treated very poorly and lived in horrible conditions.
was the first to acknowledge women's right to vote in 1893
- Estimates range from 20,000 to as high as 410,000 women.
granted the right to vote in 1894. (With the exception of Aboriginal Women)
-A unit of the SS known as the SS-Helferinnen, which consisted of highly trained women.
-By 1945, over 500,000 women had volunteered to be uniform auxiliaries in the German armed forces.
-Nursing system was very well-organized, with four sections: One for Catholics, one for Protestants, One for the Red Cross, and the “brown nurses”, who specially cared for Nazi women.
Books, articles, speeches, pictures, and papers from the period showed a diverse range of themes other than political reform and suffrage was discussed publicly.
The movements were mainly focused on female education rights, better working conditions, abolition of gender double standard and women's suffrage.
In the United Kingdom, Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU).
Before the Great War most European countries did not grant the right to vote with a few exceptions
Prior to the 20th century, women in
were considered essentially different from men.
Women were not allowed to participate in government or community institutions.
women were traditionally taught to obey a male: either a father, husband, brother, or son.
The Women of World War I
WWI opened up a wider range of occupations to female workers and hastened the collapse of traditional women's employment, particularly domestic service.
Trade unions could no longer deny women employers.
Women helped nurse the wounded, provide food and other supplies to the military, serve as telephone operators, entertain troops, and work as journalists.
Right up to the outbreak of World War I, feminists on both sides asked for peace.
Within months of the war’s outbreak, however,they became avid patriots and organizers of women in support of the war effort.
Many of these feminists hoped that patriotic support of the war would enhance the prospects for women’s suffrage after the war.
- Women took over jobs that were traditionally occupied by men.
- However, the war did not inflate women's wages.
- Employers employeed several women to replace one man by dividing skilled tasks into several less skilled stages.
Post-World War 1
In many instances, contracts of employment during World War One had been based on collective agreements between trade unions and employers, which decreed that women would only be employed 'for the duration of the war'.
Women were also divided, with single and widowed women claiming a prior right to employment over married women
The World War One shook up gender relations only temporarily.
(Women's Rights and Social Rights)
most women were still excluded from high paying jobs
most women could not vote in federal elections
first female member of Parliament in House of Commons
was scrutinized and criticized
group of women who brought up the Persons Case
questioned whether British North America Act included women
Supreme Court = no
Privy Council = yes
(made up of former Parliament members and important people, appointed for life by Governor General)
by 1929, the decision was made that females did count as persons
Social Trends of Canada
Similarities with the United States
women advocated for more rights
suffrage was granted in 1918
immigration was limited
American movies, music, clothing..etc...were adopted and embraced
inventions such as radio, cars, and movies
Different with the United States
Canada did not struggle with African-American racial prejudice as U.S. did
did not have a large Civil Rights Movement
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Held jobs that previously belonged to men
Involved in sports that were previously associated with men such as boxing.
Fewer clothing restrictions.
The women's Christian Temperance Union and Prohibition
They used their influence to convince the government to ban production,sale and consumption of alcohol-known as prohibition.
Women in Canada and the United States believed alcohol was evil because it led to wife and child abuse,accidents,poverty...etc
Many of the problems from alcohol did subside and there was a dramatic drop in alcohol abuse and poverty rate.
As a result to the prohibition there was a rise organized crime.
Canadians were involved in supplying "bootleg" alcohol to the US.
In Canada, whiskey was easy to find and there were many loopholes in the prohibition laws.
One of the loopholes-doctors could prescribe alcohol to their patients.
Due to the difficulties of enforcing a ban on alcohol, provinces sold liquor in government controlled liquor stores and the prohibition came to an end.
The first Female Member of Parliament, 1921
In the 1921 federal election, Agnes Macphail won he riding in rural Ontario to become Canada's first female Member of Parliament
She founded the Elizabeth Fry Society of Canada, an organization that helps women who have been imprisoned.
In 1954, she was appointed to Senate but died soon afterwards.
The Famous Five and The Persons Case, 1929
the idea of complete free and equality for women was far from reality-after the war women's roles were still seen as the homemaker.
The famous five were composed of 5 Alberta women-Emily Murphy, Nellie McClung, Henrietta Muir Edwards, Louise McKinney and Irene Parlby.cc
The Famous Five asked the Supreme Court of Canada to consider this rule: Does the word" person" in Section 24 to the British North America Act(BNA Act) include female persons?c
In 1916, Emily Murphy became the first women judge in the British Empire. In court, lawyers challenged her and her rights. hey claimed that women were cnot considered "persons" under the BNA Act.
In 1927, the Famous Five to asked Supreme Court to make a ruling on the isue.
After 3 months of consideration Supreme court decided that the word " qualified persons" did not apply women.
In 1928, The Famous Five with the assistance from Prime Minister King, appealed to the British Privy Council.
In 1929, the British Privy Council responded by explaining that "persons" included men and women.
Women are eligible to become members of the Senate of Canada.
the victory of the Famous Five paved the way for greater participation of women in public life.
Canada in the Thirties: The Great Depression
The US became the world's financial capital.
On October 29th, 1929, the stock exchanges of New York, Montreal and Toronto "crashed", and North Americans faced the Great Depression.
Not many Canadians owned stocks butt millions of Canadians were affected.
When the Great Depression was over, most Canadians had suffered through unemployment, bankruptcies and poverty.