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Chapter 5 Key Issue 2

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Austin Chin

on 4 February 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 5 Key Issue 2

Chapter 5 Key Issue 2
Why is English Related to Other Languages?
Language Family
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed long before recorded history.
Language Branch
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.
Language Group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.

Vocabulary (Cont.)
Creole (Creolized language)
A language that results from the mixing of the colonizer's language and the indigenous language of the people who are being dominated.
Regional variation of a language distinguished by vocab, spelling and pronunciation.
Vulgar Latin
Latin spoken by people in the provinces of the Roman Empire.
Indo-European Family

The Indo-European Family is the largest family today, with half of the worlds population speaking it. It is divided into 8 branches with the 4 largest branches being Germanic, Indo-Iranian, Balto-Slavic and Romance.
Germanic Branch
West Germanic Group

North Germanic Group
High Germanic
Low Germanic

Swedish Danish Norwegian Icelandic Old Norse

(Modern Day German)
Indo-Iranian Branch

Iranian Group (Western)
Indic Group (Eastern)
The Indo-Iranian branch his the most speakers of the Indo-European family. It includes over 100 languages, and is spoken by more than 1 billion people. It is composed of two major branches; The Iranian Group and Indic Group
Figure 5-5
The 8 branches of the Indo-European language family are mostly spoken by Europeans. The most important branches for these Europeans are Germanic, Romance, and Slavic. Indo-Iranian is spoken by more than 1 billion people.
Figure 5-6
The Germanic language of the Indo-European language family dominates in Northern and Western Europe.
Main West Germanic Languages are English and German.
Main North Germanic languages are Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, and Icelandic.
Uncommon Germanic Languages are Faeroese and Frisian.
Figure 5-7
This group includes languages spoken in Iran and neighboring countries. The major languages found within this group include Persian, Pathan, and Kurdish, all of which are written in the Arabic alphabet.
South Asia has four main language families:
90% of the people of India speak at least one of the country's 18 official languages.
Figure 5-8
The Romance branch includes the languages:
Dialects of Spanish and French:
Catalán is a dialect of Spanish
Occitan and langue d'óc is a dialect of French
Rhaeto-Romanic languages include:
Figure 5-9
This figure shows the origin and diffusion of Indo-European according to the Kurgan hearth theory. The Kurgan hearth was north of the Caspian Sea. According to this theory, the Kurgans might have infiltrated into Eastern Europe around 4000 B.C. and into central Europe and southwestern Asia around 2500 B.C.
The most widely used languages in India as well as neighboring countries of Pakistan and Bangladesh. About 1/3 of Indians use the an Indic language called Hindi. Hindi can be regarded as a collection of many individual languages, but there is only one way to write it, using a script called Devanagari. The Indic group also includes many other languages, such as Pakistan's principal language, Urdu.
Figure 5-10
This figure shows the origin and diffusion of Indo-European according to the Anatolian hearth theory. Indo-European might have originated in present-day Turkey 2,000 years before the Kurgans, diffusing along with agricultural innovations into Europe and Asia.
Balto-Slavic Branch
Figure 5-11
The pie chart shows the % of the people who speak a language from each major family. Sino-Tibetan and Indo-European dominate. The map colors show the distribution of each family. Indo-European has diffused worldwide but Sino-Tibetan has only diffused in a relatively small area.
Origin & Diffusion of Indo-European
The Balto-Slavic Branch is another large branch, spoken by many people around the world.Slavic was once a single language, but when several groups of Slavs migrated from Asia to different parts of Europe. Due to this, It can be divided into East, West and South Slavic groups as well as the Baltic group.
If Germanic, Romance, Balto-Slavic and Indo-Iranian are all part of the same language family, then they must have descended from a single common ancestral language. Thisancestral language is the Proto-Indo-European language. The existence of this language cannot be proven with certainty, because it would've existed thousands of years before the invention of writing or recorded history.
The most widely spoken Slavic languages are eastern ones, primarily Russian. Russian became important when Soviet officials forced natives to learn Russian after WWII.
The most spoken West Slavic language is Polish.
After Polish, the most spoken West Slavic languages are Czech and Slovak, languages so similar speakers of one can understand the other.
In Czechoslovakia, the government attempted to balance use of Czech and Slovak, which ultimately resulted in Slovakia splitting from the Czech Republic.
"Kurgan" Theory
Marija Gimbutas stated that the first Proto-Indo-European speakers were the Kurgan people, whose hearth was in the steppes near the border between present-day Russia and Kazakhstan. These Kurgan warriors conquered much of Europe between 3500 and 2500 B.C.
Renfrew Hypothesis
Archaeologist Colin Renfrew argues that the Proto-Indo-European speakers lived 2000 years before the Kurgans, in Eastern Anatolia which is present-day Turkey. He states that Indo-European diffused with agricultural practices rather than by military conquest.
Romance Branch
The Romance Branch evolved from the Latin language spoken by Romans thousands of years ago. The four most used Romance languages today are Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian, but many other languages are included. These languages are formed due to the diffusion of Latin across Europe, whihc is due to the conquering Roman armies. However, as this happened, they also crushed many native languages spoken by the natives. Many languages from the Romance language branch continued to diffuse, mostly due to their colonization by other countries. This is seen by the location of Spanish and Portuguese speakers, with almost 90% living outside of Europe.
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