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Differentiate Mercalli Scale from Richter Scale;

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Francesca Palabrica

on 11 January 2014

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Transcript of Differentiate Mercalli Scale from Richter Scale;

Measuring Earthquakes (Mercalli, Richter, and Moment Magnitude Scale)

Mercalli Scale
Moment Magnitude Scale
a logarithmic scale of 1 to 10 that compares the energy released by different earthquakes based on the area of the geological fault ruptured in the earthquake.
Richter Scale

a numerical scale for expressing the magnitude of an earthquake based on seismograph oscillations.
Differentiate Mercalli Scale from Richter Scale

Differentiate Richter Scale from Moment Magnitude Scale

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using each earthquake scale

Enumerate and describe earthquake associated hazards.
an earthquake intensity scale based on observed effects and ranging from I (undetectable without instruments) to XII (almost total destruction).
Advantages of the Richter Scale
It allows easier comparison of earthquake strength
Disadvantages of Richter Scale
It does not reflect the size of very big earthquakes accurately.
Advantage of Mercalli Scale

Disadvantage of Mercalli Scale
Shows the impact of an earthquake in a more realistic, relatable way.
It is very subjective. You can have many different ratings for one area, and varies according to the nature of the area (i.e. rural/urban)
Advantage of Moment Magnitude Scale
Disadvantage of Moment Magnitude Scale
Mercalli Scale vs. Richter Scale
measures earthquake intensity
effects of the earthquake
measured by observation
quantified from observation of earthquake's effects
rating varies according to the distance from the epicenter.
measures energy released by earthquake
measured with a seismograph
varies according to distance from the epicenter, but gives the whole earthquake one value as a whole.
Richter Scale vs. Moment Magnitude Scale
makes use of seismic waves

records responses from seismographs and their distance from the epicenter
not recommended for earthquakes with large magnitudes
records physical properties (i.e. seismic moment of earthquake)
able to measure large magnitude earthquakes with accuracy
Earthquake Related Hazards
Earthquakes can generate tsunamis, especially in coastal areas. Tsunamis are large ocean waves that are capable of causing massive death and destruction.
Landslides and Rockfalls
Earthquakes can destabilize cliffs, thus bringing down the rocks and earth on it, burying and injuring those nearby, as well as bringing down and injuring or killing those on the cliff.
Subsidence and Lateral Spreading
Earthquakes can cause subsidence, or the lowering of the ground surface.
This can cause coastal areas to be permanently flooded.

Lateral spreading can also occur, wherein sloping ground moves downhill, opening up cracks.

When waterlogged sediments are agitated by seismic shaking, liquefaction occurs. Load bearing capacity of grains are reduced by their separation from each other. Buildings and other structures can sink down into the ground or tilt over, while underground pipes and tanks may rise up to the surface.

Effects of Ground Shaking
Structures such as buildings and dams can be severely damaged, thus injuring or burying people.
More precise than Richter scale; uses calculations for additional accuracy
More difficult to use; requires more time and effort.
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