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Macromolecules in foods

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Gigi Lom

on 30 January 2014

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Transcript of Macromolecules in foods

Evaluation of Results
Main source of energy
• Made of Carbon, Hydrogen and
Oxygen atoms bonded
Ratio of 1:2:1 (C:H:O)
• Types and Examples:
A. monosaccharide
B. disaccharide
C. polysaccharide
Macromolecules in foods
What are 'macromolecules'?
Macro --> Large ; + Molecules = Large Molecules
Macromolecules are molecules containing a large number of atoms.
formed by a process known as polymerization (compounds are built by joining smaller ones together)
smaller units (monomers) joined together to form polymers.
Examples of Macromolecules in Foods
Lipids
Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
What are lipids?
Types of Lipid
1. Triglycerides
2. Phospholipids
3. Steroid Hormones
#2. PHOSPHOLIPIDS
Makes the cell membrane
By: Mikey, Poom, Gigi
Biology 10

insolubility in water.
made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms.
are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids
have the highest amount of energy in their bonds.
Triglycerides: Simple lipids
Saturated Fats
FATTY LIPIDS#2:
Unsaturated Fats
there is at least one carbon-carbon double bond in a fatty acid (good healthy oil)
TRIGLYCERIDES
IN WHAT FOOD COULD WE FIND FATS?
NUTS
BUTTER
WHIP-CREAM
OLIVE OIL
PALM OIL
ICECREAM
DEEP FRIED POTATO CHIPS/FRENCHFRIES
PIZZA
PROTEINS
proteins are macromolecules that contain nitrogen a well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
they are polymers of molecules called amino acids
amino acids are compounds with an amino group (−NH2)
Amino Acids
Amino acids are the monomers of proteins.
All amino acids have an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end.
What distinguishes one amino acid from another is the R-group section of the molecule.
Functions of Protein
controls the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes.
used to form bones and muscles.
Could be used for transporting substances into or out of cells
help to fight diseases in our body
There are 4 levels of structural organization in Protein
1. Primary - the sequence of amino acids in a protein chain.
2. Secondary - amino acids within a chain can be twisted or folded.
3. Tertiary - the chain it self could be folded
4. Quaternary - if there is more than one chain, each chain will have its' specific arrangement
Macromolecules play an important role in our bodily functions and can be found in the food we eat. Because we were curious about which foods contained which macromolecules, and because we are intrepid pioneers of science, we did tests for the presence of macromolecules in various samples of food. Specifically, we tested for the presence of lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, and monosaccharides in samples of potato, oil, milk, sugar, egg, rice, tofu, bread, and glucose.
Introduction to Macromolecule Experiment
It is important to know about the presence of different types of macromolecules in our food because it is important to maintain a healthy diet. Different types of macromolecules contribute to our bodily functions in different ways, and a diet consisting of balanced amounts of each macromolecule type helps our body function properly. Sugar and carbohydrates help provide us with the energy that our body uses. Lipids also play a role in the body’s energy production and use. Proteins are vital to our cellular functions, as they help transport molecules and replicate DNA. Because of this, we can see why keeping track of and adhering to a balanced diet can be beneficial to the body. In popular media, ‘eating healthy’ is sometimes portrayed as strict adherence to certain ‘nutritional philosophies’ in order to stay unnaturally thin, but in real life this is not the case. A real healthy diet consists of adequate and balanced intake of the macromolecules that the body needs.

Conclusion
Example:
sesame oil
olive oil
Fatty Acids
fats that contain no double bonds between the carbon atoms, so it is saturated with hydrogen.
it is when fatty acids contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms.
Unhealthy Fats
ex: bad butter/ magarine
more than 20 different amino acids could be found in nature
they are identical in the regions where they may be joined together by covalent bonds.
Lipids will be present in oil, milk, tofu, and bread because they seem waxy and fat. Oil and sucrose should be the only samples not containing starch, as they don’t originate from alive and organic/animal material. Proteins will be present in egg white, potato, milk, rice, tofu, and bread because they are related to living things and thus should contain proteins. Oil, egg, rice, tofu, and bread won’t have monosaccharides/sugar in them because they are not sweet.
Hypotheses
Structure:
composed of 1 glycerol and 3 Fatty acids
Fatty Acids #1:
Functions:



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#3. STEROID HORMONES
Function:
Chemical messenger
Functions of Triglycerides:
Stores long term energy (for longer usage as compared to carbohydrates)
Shock absorber (Protect vital organs in case of shock)
Insulation - prevent heat loss
What kind of food gives us protein?
answer:
Carbohydrates
Basic Info about
Carbohydrates...
A. Monosaccharide
Single sugar molecules (one sugar unit)
easily broken down to release the energy in the chemical bonds
B. Disaccharide
compose of 2 sugar units
C. Polysaccharides
contains many sugar units
Foods which contains carbohydrate
Baked/ Mashed Potato
Bagel
Bread
Wheat
Rice
Everything that contains STARCH!
examples:
glucose
galactose : a component of milk
fructose : found in many fruits
examples:
sucrose: normal sugar eat
lactose: also found in milk
maltose: example--> ovaltine
examples:
cellulose : plant cell wall
starch : flour (break down into sugar when meets amylase)
glycogen : animal starch
chitin: found in polysaccharide of exoskeletal animals
Nucleic Acids
macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus
store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information.
are composed of long chains of nucleotides
nucleotides are the monomers
2 types
Deoxyribonucleic acid
Ribonucleic acid
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA- double helix)
Ribonucleic acid (RNA-single strand)
COMPARISON
nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose
single-stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose
TESTING FOR LIPIDS
RESULTS
before:
after:
In all from our results, we discovered many things from our results. Starting off with the lipid test were we got all the food samples and added a few drops of ethanol to each food sample and let it set for a while. From our results, we found out that food samples which left black trails behind contained lipids in them (oil, milk, rice) while the others didn’t. During this point in the experiment, we noticed that these 3 food samples had a catalyst causing it’s form to change and become emulsive. These 3 food samples started becoming more cloudy which proved the point of them containing lipids. During this process, the material started to seperate (dense going lower) and started to somewhat precipitate. Another observation we noticed in the lab was that the reaction of each food sample were somewhat both radical and lethargic. In the lab, the milk instantly turned emulsive while the others changed slowly. However the other food samples (Tofu, Potatoe, etc) didn’t have any reaction. There is a possibility that we made some errors; some food samples were larger than others, so the reactions may have been different.
Lipid Test
Results
Before
After
Starch (Polysaccharide) Test
Evaluation of Results
In our second test, we did the starch test (polysaccharide) where we took the food samples and added a few drops of Iodine into the sample in order to see which food sample contained starch. During the lab, many chemical reactions occur where the food samples started turning black which was a sign for starch in the food. In the test, the bread, the potatoe, and the rich which belongs to the carbohydrate group. These 3 food samples turned black which was a sign of polysaccaride in the food. In this process, the other foods didnt really have much change in them when compared to these food samples. The majority of the food were usually.black due to the color of the iodine itself but these 3 foods just turned pitch black. Some mistakes may have been made, as (just like in the first test) some samples were larger than others. However, we were careful to apply the same amount of Iodine drops to each sample.
Results
BIURET TEST (PROTEIN)
Hypothesis of each food sample:
Oil and sucrose should be the only samples not containing starch, as they don’t originate from alive and organic/animal material.
Predictions:
egg white - some starch in it
oil - there should be no starch in oil
sucrose - contains some sugar
potato - must contain a lot of starch!
milk- probably contain some amount of starch
rice - yes,
tofu - yes some
glucose - yes
bread- A Lot
In the bluret test, we got a certain amount of food sample and we were trying to test which food sample here contained protein in it. We started off with laying down 5% potassium hydroxide and copper sulfate in to the food sample. After this, a sign of protein in food was when the pigments in the food started to turn from blue to violet. In the test, the milk, tofu and bread changed it’s color from blue (initial color of mixture) to violet. This proves the point of how these foods contained protein in them while the other food samples didn’t have any change in their appearance. These results may have been affected by some errors, as the potassium hydroxide to copper sulfate proportion for each sample may have varied, leading to skewed results.
Hypothesis: Proteins will be present in egg white, potato, milk, rice, tofu, and bread because they are related to living things and thus should contain proteins.
oil = ­no
egg white = some
sucrose = no
potato ­= yes alot
milk ­=yes some
rice ­= yes alot
tofu ­= yes ALOTTTT
bread = YESSSS
before:
after:
before
after
TESTING FOR MONOSACCHARIDES
Hypothesis/Prediction: Oil, egg, rice, tofu, and bread won’t have monosaccharides/sugar in them because they are not sweet.
● oil = ­no
● egg white = no
● sucrose =YES
● potato ­=yes
● milk ­= yes
● rice ­= no
● tofu ­= no
● bread ­= no
● glucose ­= YES
In the glucose set, we mashed a certain amount of the food sample and added benedict reagent into the food sample in order to check for which food sample contained glucose. In the test, if the food sample changed it’s color to brick red, it proves the point of how they contain glucose in them. In the test, the glucose, egg and bread turned yellow proving the point of how they contained glucose. In the test, we boiled all the food samples and check. The ones that turned green reveals that they don’t contain any glucose. Possible errors include over or under application of the Benedict reagent; this could have affected the intensity of the reactant colors and given us false data.
Results:
Evaluation of Results
extra pictures of the lab :
CONNECTING TO OUR DAILY DIETS
Gigi's Diet
Mikey's Diet
Because Mikey only had french fries today, his macromolecule intake is highly imbalanced and a little unhealthy. Potatoes have lots of starch and a little protein, but not much of anything else. Also french fries contains lots of saturated fats which is very unhealthy for human body.
Poom's Diet
Poom loves to eat egg sushi whenever he could. He frequently have eggs with his meals. He also loves to eat fried chicken at school during milkbreak. Poom's diet is both healthy and unhealthy at the same time. Eventhough he is getting a good sources of protein from the egg sushi, there is also unwanted sucrose mixed in it. In the fried chicken, it's true that Poom gets a good amount of carbohydrate from the chicken and the starch which covers it, however, deep fried chicken also contain a huge amount of saturated fats, which are unhealthy for our body.
In the morning, Gigi often eat rice with omlet (kai jiaw). Although it makes her full in the morning, she only gets carbohydrate from the rice, protein from the fried egg and lipid from the cooking oil. Though it may seemed a pretty good meal, the nutrients she received in the morning isn't enough. There is no vegetables or sources of meat to give her a more well balanced diet. This is why Gigi usually eat 'Papaya' at school during milkbreak. Not only it contain enzymes that help her digest her breakfast faster, it also contains fructose (natural sugar from fruits).
What is a well balanced diet?
Comparing Asian and European's diet
Talking about diets, when comparing many countries together, we can clarify how each country’s diet would be just from the things they eat. When comparing an Asian diet to a European diet, there are many differences in what each type of food contains specifically. According to the “Dietary intakes of Pacific, Māori, Asian and European adolescents: the Auckland High School Heart Survey”, (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20920102), asians usually consume alot of meat products such as fish and chicken and somewhat consume a larger amount of diary products when compared to Europeans while the Europeans usually consume anything they have in their household. This proves the point of how Asians get a larger amount of proteins, carbohydrates, and fat than European due to the amount of consumption. Despite consumption, many speculations have came out about why asians seem to be thinner than other nations. The first reason behind this is how they do not consume a lot of sugar (fructose) and they also tend to eat starch that aren’t entirely treated well causing their digestive system to digest things slower. In all, it proves the point of how asian diets don’t usually involve any sugar (fructose) so asians tend to stay thin when compared to a European diet.
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All the citations of the resources will be linked in our 'Macromolecules in food DATA' document
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