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Lighting in the Theatre

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Georgia Street

on 30 July 2010

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Transcript of Lighting in the Theatre

Lighting GEORGIA STREET Types of Lanterns Flood Fresnel Pebble Convex (PC) Profile Parcan Symbol for flood light This is the simplest type of lantern, consisting of a lamp and a reflector in a box, with no lens. The reflector concentrates the light towards the opening in the box. There is no control over the focussing of a flood, other than its general direction The Fresnel (pronounced "Frennel") is a soft-edged spotlight with more control over beam angle than floods, but less control than profiles.

The size of the beam can be adjusted by moving the lamp and reflector closer to or farther from the lens, either by a screw mechanism or a simple slide. The beam can be shaped by the four barndoors attached to the front of the lantern.
This lantern uses a modified plano-convex lens with a pebbled effect on the plano (flat) side. The pebbled effect gives the beam its characteristic soft edge. The edge of the beam is slightly harder than a Fresnel, but is not hard edged. The pebble convex lens uses the efficiency of the plano convex lens and gives the light a softer edge. Like a Fresnel, there is one focussing knob to change the beam angle.
Symbol for Fresnel on lighting plan ROLES OF A LIGHTING ENGINEER A lighting engineer oversees all aspects of lighting a theatre production.

Their roles includes operation and maintenance of lighting systems in a theatre, plotting lighting, rigging and de-rigging lighting, programming lighting consoles and loading automated colour change systems.

The lighting engineer must work with the stage manager, producer and sound technician on each project. Symbol for PC in lighting plan Symbol for Profile on a lighting plan Gobo Profile lanterns produce clearly defined spots of light and are the most focussable and versatile of the lanterns. They have a lens (some have two lenses), a lamp and a reflector, and they also have shutters and a gate.
Profiles get their name from their ability to project the shape of anything placed in the gate of the lantern between the lamp and the lens. These shapes may be formed by the shutters, or they may be cut out of thin metal Symbol for Parcan in lighting chart The lantern is simply a "can" in which the PAR lamp is contained (hence "Parcan").
The PAR (Parabolic Aluminised Reflector) lamps are available in a range of beam angles, depending on the amount of diffusion on the front lens of the lamp. The lamp is a sealed beam unit consisting of a lamp, reflector and lens in one.
Because the light produced can be very intense, Parcans are especially suited to strong colours or for special effect. Flow Chart of Lighting Equipment
and their uses Lanterns Sub-patch DMX Mixer 'translates' the electricity to where it flows or lighting desk, controls the settings of the lanterns (faders etc.) illuminates the stage, set and actors Brief History of Lighting However, soon plays were moved indoors where more elements of the production could be controlled:

In the 1500s, colored jars of water were placed in front of candles to create different hues of light.

Later in the 1800s, gas lamps were used and allowed brighter light on sets.

By the late 1800s electric lights were used in theaters, which allowed more artistic control. This helped establish theatrical lighting as an intimate part of the storytelling process Stage lighting began with the simplest light available: natural light. The sun and moon were used for the earliest plays in Rome and Athens, so theatrical events set during the day often had to be performed during the day to be lit properly. Key people and moments in lighting history 1545-Sebastiano Serlio -> coloured liquids in bottles-> red wine, saffron (yellow), ammonium chloride in a copper vessel (blue) -> brightly polished barber basin & round bottle as lens. 1628-Joseph Furstenbach ->footlights (floats) -> sidelights 17th Century-
chandeliers used in France
gas lights are used
1783-France-Kerosene lamp->adjustable wick
---followed by-> glass chimney-> makes individual float lights 1791- William Murdock-> Illuminating gas produced in quantity
-> needed attention-> not easy to control 1803- Henry Drummond->Limelight
heating block of quicklime with-> oxygen and hydrogen flame (for a followspot or to indicate sunlight)-> A green-ish tint.
Ability to highlight moments of performance-> artistic freedom-> 'how' actors lit important 1878-1898- Henry Irving->
lighting rehearsals
transparent lacquers of coloured class to limelight with electricity to incandescents
footlights of different colours and broken into sections
wanted to dim the house lights

1879- 'The Jablachkoff candle'
-> first useful lightbulb-> "electric candle"
-> first practical electric spotlight As technology develops and advances at a more rapid rate, so did development of more effective lighting equipment 1882-> Thomas Edison creates first practical lightbulb
-> Incandescent to tungsten-halogen lamps
-> Lacquer to gels.
Bibliography:
http://www.ehow.com/about_4702213_basics-stage-lighting.html
http://www.ehow.com/about_5344686_theater-lighting-history.html
http://www.ehow.com/facts_5007727_history-theatrical-lighting.html
http://www.ehow.com/about_5421882_history-theatre-lighting.html
http://www.theatrecrafts.com/lx_lanterns.html
http://www.prospects.ac.uk/p/types_of_job/theatre_lighting_director_job_description.jsp
http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/spd130et/histlighting.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stage_lighting
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lighting_console Controls the input of electricity
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