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Marine Mammals

COM10003 Learning & Communicating Online
by

Anneke Payne

on 20 May 2015

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Transcript of Marine Mammals

Marine Mammals

These Dolphins can breach up to 16 feet in the air. They are known for their high level of intelligence that makes them easy to train in captivity.
Like other dolphin species, they live in groups called ‘Pods’. Typically, a pod can be from 10 to 100 members, (National Geographic Kids, 2012). Bottlenose Dolphins have also been observed in the wild interacting with the Pilot Whale, (Bioexpedition,2015).
Many of them have seasonal migrational patterns that they follow annually.
Dolphins are found living in warmer waters around the world such as the Pacific Ocean in Australia, Southern California and the Hawaiian Islands, and along the coast of the USA from Cape Cod down to the Gulf of Mexico. (Bioexpedition, 2015).

Dugong
Orange indicates Dugong locations
Location
Physical traits
Behavioural traits
Pacific
Harbour Seal

Pacific Harbour Seals are found in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, some migrate South for Winter. They prefer coastal waters and can be found on rocky islands, sandy beaches, mudflats or estuaries. (New Hampshire Public Television & Marine Mammal Centre, 2015).
The Pacific Habour Seals have spotted coats, shades vary from white, silver-grey to black or dark brown. They can grow up to 1.9m long and weigh up to 140kgs. Males are slightly larger than females. True seals have small flippers and move on land by flipping on their bellies (Marine Mammal Centre 2015).
They spend half their time between land and water. They can dive to 457m depth, for up to 40 minutes. However, their average dive lasts 3-5 minutes and is typically slow. They sometimes sleep in the water and their eyesight is better in the water than on land. (Marine Mammal Centre 2015).
Breeding occurs between Spring and Autumn. The male will have multiple partners and the female, pregnant for 11months, will give birth to 1 pup, which can weigh 9kgs and 0.75m long. She can give birth on land or in water. Her pup can swim after birth and weaned between 4-6 weeks. (New Hampshire Public Television 2015).
Porpoise
Physical traits
Marine Mammals, 2012
Location
Porpoises live close to shores in shallow waters as they prefer to hunt within 25m of surface depth.
A variety known as Harbor Porpoise is found in the Northern Hemisphere as shown with light coloured shading of the diagram. (OneKind, 2010).
Whilst porpoises looks like small dolphins, they are also related to whales and have beaks (noses) that are flat with spade-shaped teeth. Their name originates from France and is translated to be 'pig-fish' There are 6 varieties of porpoise. (Marine Mammals, 2014)
Behavioural traits
Porpoises eat fish, squid and crustaceans. They are fast swimmers and can swim up to 55km/hr, and weigh up to 90kg. They are like whales in that they can relocate based on echos from other pods. (OneKind, 2010)
(OneKind, 2010)
Breeding habits
Porpoise are sexually mature by 4-7 years depending on species, with mating season during Summer. Pregnancy lasts 11-12 months after which a single baby is born, called a calf. (OneKind, 2010)
(OneKind, 2010)
Bottlenose
Dolphin
The Bottlenose Dolphin is the most well known and well loved of all the Dolphin species, (Bioexpedition, 2015). Their average length is 6 to 12 feet and average weight is from 330 to 440 pounds.
Their body is very sleek and streamlined to help them move through the water with ease.
They have pectoral flippers as their forelimbs, and the blood circulates through these flippers helping the Dolphin to maintain the right body temperature.

(Moine 2012)
(CCPhotographs 2015)
(Marine Mammal Centre 2015)
(New Hampshire Public Television 2015)
(Inaglory 2009)
Whales
Physical traits
Whales belong to the order Cetecea, and are mammals fully adapted to aquatic life. There are Two types of whales:
Baleen whales have a "sieve" structure in the jaw, to filter food out of water. Baleen whales have two blowholes.
Toothed whales are carnivors and use their teeth to hunt for prey. Toothed whales have one blowhole. (Whale-World, 2015)
Locations
Whales are found in all major oceans, and
their location depends on species and migration patterns. Climate and food supply are major factors determining where whales live. Some whales, such as the humpback whale, travel thousands of kilometers due to their mating season and food availability. (Whale Facts, 2015).
Breeding habits
There are 2 seasons for whales, mating season and feeding season. Mating season varies on species of whale. Mating is during Winter near the equator, as whales take advantage of the climate. One offspring is born, after gestation of 9-15 months. Nursing period usually goes for 1 year. (Fact-Sheet Whales, 2015). Mating can be affected by food availability and predators. (Whale Facts, 2015).
Behavioural traits
Most whales slap water with their fins, believed to signal danger and are active by jumping out of water. Whales travel both alone and in groups, and sleep for short periods underwater. (Fact sheet- Whales, 2015).
Whales are conscious breathers, deciding when to breathe air, and use lyrical sounds to communicate with each other. Sounds vary between species, and can be heard from many kilometers away. (Fact sheet- Whales, 2015).
Humpback Whale Migration Patterns
Introduction
This online resource will provide an insight on 5 selected marine mammals. It will briefly discuss each mammal's physical traits, their location, breeding habits and behavioural traits. By using some of the checklist approach (Metzer, J 2007) of:

* authority - noted author or contact information,
* objectivity - using research centres and organisational websites, due to their depth of knowledge and reputation on providing credible data, and
* currency - presence of date stamp.

Finally using Meola (2004), contextual approach of comparing and corroboration with other websites to verify the data.

Contents

Bottlenose Dolphin............................................................Anneke Payne
Dugong.............................................................................Carl Sengstock
Pacific Harbor Seal.......................................................Joanne Waterson
Porpoise............................................................................Tracey Pedron
Whales.........................................................................Michael Altenkirch
The Dugong's body is a cylindrical shape that tapers at both ends, like a big grey cigar with flippers. The Dugong has thick skin covered in short hair, which may help with touch sensation. Their brain weighs a maximum of 300g. They have very small eyes and limited vision, but have strong hearing capabilities. The Dugong has two tusks and the adults grow to an average length of 3m and can weigh about 420kg. The females tend to be larger than males. (Wikipedia 2015)
Physical Traits
Physical Traits
Conclusion
References
Data

Meola, M 2004, Chucking the checklist: A contextual approach to teaching undergraduates, Web-site evaluation. Libraries and the Academy, Vol 4 No 3, pp. 331–344

Metzer, J.M 2007, ‘Making Sense of Credibility on the Web: Models for Evaluating Online Information and Recommendations for Future Research’, Journal of the American Society for information science & technology, vol. 58, no 13, pp. 2078-2091

National Geographic Society 1996-2015, Harbor Porpoise Locations. Viewed 28th April, 2015. <https://animals.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/mammals/harbor-porpoise/>

New Hampshire Public Television 2015, Harbor Seal – Phoca vituline, New Hampshire Public Television, viewed 5th May 2015, <http://www.nhptv.org/wild/harborseal.asp>

OneKind 2010, Registered Charity, Porpoise viewed 28th April, 2015
<https://www.onekind.orge/be_inspired/animals_a_z/porpoise/>

Schlegel, L 2012, Dugong, The Encyclopedia of Earth, viewed 14th May 2015, <http://www.eoearth.org/view/article/151808/>

Sea World Parks and Entertainment. Bottle Nose Dolphin Information booklet 2015. Visited 22.04.2015. <http://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/bottlenose-dolphins/>

Wikipedia 2015, Dugong, Wikipedia, viewed 26th April 2015, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dugong>

whale-facts, 2015, Whale Information, viewed 10th May 2015 <http://www.whalefacts.org/mating-season/>

whaleworld, 2015, Whale Information, viewed 10th May 2015 <http://www.whale-world.com/>


Location
Dugong live near the Middle East, Africa, China, Japan, Vietnam, Cambodia, Taiwan, Philippines, South Asia and the South Pacific and Northern Indian Oceans. They were also found in the Mediterranean, but are now extinct in that area. (Wikipedia 2015).
Breeding habits
Calves are born in shallow waters after 13-14 months gestation at 3-7 year intervals. Newborn calves weight between 20-30 kgs. They stay with their mother until weaned, which takes up to 2 years. Dugong can reach 17 years old before they begin breeding. (Animal Files 2006).
Location
Behavioural traits
COM10003 Learning & Communicating Online
This online resource has captured top line information for each of our marine mammal, providing an awareness of their locality, reproduction and characteristics. They spend most if not all their time in water and must resurface in order to breathe (Marine Mammal 2015). Their reproductive system only allows one pup or calf to be born. "We have much to learn about the ecological roles of marine mammals, but there is evidence that the abundance and distribution of marine mammals can have important effects on the structure and function of some ecosystems." (Bowen W.D 1997)

(Reef Biosearch 2015)
(Hill 2015)
(Sirenian International 2000)
(Animal Files 2006)

Seaworld Parks and Entertainment Bottlenose Dolphin info book (2015), states Bottlenose Dolphins have certain breeding seasons that vary with location, and have multiple mates in a given reproduction season.

National Geographic, 2015
Humpback Whales, BBC Documentary, 2009
Behavioural traits
Breeding habits
(SOS 2012)
Dugongs are normally seen travelling in groups of six or fewer. Their life span can reach 70 years and thier average speed is 10km/hr, under duress this would increase. They make a whistling sound when frightened, and their dive durations can last to 3 minutes. (Schlegel 2012).
Images

Animal Files 2006, Dugong, The Animal Files, viewed 26th April 2015, <http://www.theanimalfiles.com/mammals/dugong_manatees/dugong.html>

Inaglory, B 2009, File:Harbor seal is nursing at Point Lobos.jpg, Wikimedia Commons, viewed 9th May 2015, <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harbor_seal_is_nurcing_at_Point_Lobos.jpg>

Marine Mammal Centre 2015, Garnett, Marine Mammal Centre, viewed 5thMay 2015, <http://www.marinemammalcenter.org/Get-Involved/adopt-a-seal/garnett-1.html>

Marine Mammal North Pacific Universities Research Consortium, 2015, Harbor Porpoise ,viewed 28th April, 2015 <http://docs.wind-watch.org/harbor-porpoise.png>

Moine, G 2012, File: Harbor seal (phoca vitulina).jpg, Wikimedia Commons, 17 August, viewed 14th May 2015, <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Harbor_Seal_(phoca_vitulina).jpg>

National Geographic Society 1996-2015, Harbor Porpoise Locations. Viewed 28th April, 2015. <https://animals.nationalgeographic.com.au/animals/mammals/harbor-porpoise/>

New Hampshire Public Television 2015, Harbor Seal – Phoca vituline, New Hampshire Public Television, viewed 5th May 2015, <http://www.nhptv.org/wild/harborseal.asp>

OneKind 2010, Registered Charity, Porpoise viewed 28th April, 2015
<https://www.onekind.orge/be_inspired/animals_a_z/porpoise/>

Reef Biosearch 2015, Dugongs of the Great Barrier Reef, Reef Biosearch, viewed 26th April 2015, <http://www.greatbarrierreefs.com.au/dugong-great-barrier-reef/>

Sirenian International 2000, How many species? Where are they located? Sirenian International, viewed 26th April 2015, <http://www.sirenian.org/distribution.html>

SOS 2012, Activtist swim for Dugongs, 21st August 2013, SOS Species, viewed 26th April 2015, <http://www.sospecies.org/sos_projects/mammals/dugong/?13552/Activists-Swim-for-Dugongs>

Westmorland/Corbis, June 2008, viewed 15th May 2015, http://www.theguardian.com.​
Videos

BioExpedition, 2014, 10 differences between a dolphin and a porpoirse, 3rd June 2014, viewed 15th May 2015,
< www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q-UYrywY5Jw >

Humpback Whales BBC Documentary Excerpt, 9th Aug 2009, viewed 10th May 2015 < www.youtube.com/watch?v=-oYIK6BG6co >

CCPhotographs 2015, Harbor Seal Pups-Pacific Grove.CA. 3/24/15 – 1080p, 24 March, viewed 9th May 2015, <http://youtu.be/DHdAwRf5YRc>

Hill, L 2015, A dugong swimming in the shallows of Shark bay, 1 February, viewed 26th April 2015, <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0j_CZGdJ1Og_>

National Geographic Kids. 10 Facts about Bottle Nose Dolphins. Published by the National Geographic Society. 2012. Visited 29.04.2015. www.kids.nationalgeographic.com/animals/bottlenose-dolphin > Sept 18, 2014. Uploaded by Bioexpedition. <www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKiV-4dEms4>
Photography- Stuart Westmorland/Corbis, (2008)
Seaworld Parks and Entertainment (2015)
Bioexpedition, (2015)
Bioexpedition, (2015)
Getty Images, (2010)
Breeding habits
BioExpedition, 2015
Data

Animal Files 2006, Dugong, The Animal Files, viewed 26th April 2015, <http://www.theanimalfiles.com/mammals/dugong_manatees/dugong.html>

Bioexpedition. Bottle Nose Dolphin. 2015. Visited 22.04.2015. <http://www.bioexpedition.com/dolphins/>

Bowen, W.D 1997, ‘Role of marine mammals in aquatic ecosystems’, Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 158, pp. 267-274, viewed 11th May 2015, <http://www.int-res.com/articles/meps/158/m158p267>

Dolphin Research Institute. Hastings, Victoria, Australia. 2002. Visited 23.04.2015, <www.dolphinresearch.org.au/bottlenose.php>

Fact Sheet- Whales, 2015, viewed 9th May 2015 <http://www.defenders.org/whales/basic-facts>

Marine Mammal Centre 2015, Pacific Harbor Seal, Marine Mammal Centre, viewed 22ndApril 2015, <http://www.marinemammalcenter.org/education/marine-mammal-information/pinnipeds/pacific-harbor-seal/>

Marine Mammal North Pacific Universities Research Consortium, 2015, Harbor Porpoise ,viewed 28th April, 2015 <http://docs.wind-watch.org/harbor-porpoise.png>

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